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Examining Heuristic-System 1 and Analytic-System 2 processing during reasoning on the syllogisms and the modified version of the bat and ball problems: response time, response confidence, and dual-task assessments

Saban, Sara

Preprint | 2022 | Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System

How are reasoning processes shaped by the heuristic system and analytic system? In the present study, we were focused on how heuristics and analytical thinking affect reasoning. According to dual-process theories, reasoning consists of two distinct modes of processing: System 1 and System 2. System 1 generates responses that are automatic, fast, and intuitive. This system does not need working memory resources. The other system is reflective. Characteristics of this system are deliberative, slow, and conscious. System 2 depends on working memory capacity. Therefore, system 2 needs working memory resources. In the present study, the . . .experimental design was as follows: All participants performed randomly distributed modified version of the bat and ball problems and the syllogistic reasoning problems while they kept memory load in mind and had a time limit in the initial response stage. Then the questions were asked again without memory load and deadline. Both tasks consist of conflict (experiment questions) and no-conflict (control questions) questions. Whereas participants chose among four options in a modified version of the bat and ball problems, they chose between yes and no, considering two premises and a conclusion in the syllogistic reasoning problems. A two-response paradigm was applied. The problems were asked twice. In the first presentation of the problems, we occupied the participant’s working memory with a dual task procedure and time pressure. We replicated the common implication of system 1 with fast response and system 2 with slow thinking Daha fazlası Daha az

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