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The historical roots of European Union: Integration, characteristics, and responsibilities for the 21st century

Atatüre, S.

Article | 2008 | European Journal of Social Sciences7 ( 2 ) , pp.18 - 32

Although European Union already plays a significant role in shaping international society, it may still influence international society more effectively. In this study, this claim will be demonstrated with reference to the success of European countries in transforming the concept of sovereignty and to three other characteristics of the union which have emerged in the process of integration: (1) implicit formation, (2) passive defense, and (3) will-power and concert. Moreover, it will be argued that arrangements, which remove structural inconsistencies of the union, and policies, which facilitate inclusion of Turkey to the union, wil . . .l play a significant role in enhancing the European Union's capacity to mould the international society. As a result, in spite of its inability to affect international order, this paper will describe the Union's potential to influence international society and discuss the strategies to increase this potential Daha fazlası Daha az

The adaptation of the constructive thinking inventory (CTI) to Turkish, language validity, & psychometric investigation

Tosun, Ü. | Karadag, E.

Article | 2008 | Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri8 ( 1 ) , pp.249 - 259

The purpose of this study was to adapt the CTI to Turkish and invesitgate the Turkish version of the CTI. First, the CTI items were translated to Turkish and translation validity of the items were investigated. Second, for the language equivalency of the CTI, 42 ESL teachers from eight different secondary schools in Istanbul were selected as a sample. First the CTI English version and 3 weeks later the CTI Turkish version were applied to this group, respectively. Next, 362 teachers from. 20 different secondary schools at in İstanbul were sampled and reponded to the Turkish CTI in order to investigate the inventroy's reliability. A p . . .aired-samples t-test was used in order to obtain the language eguivalency of the CTI items. In addition, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation coefficients were used in order to determine itemtotal and item-reminder analyses. Independent sample t-tests were used to define the differences between the lower and upper group means acquired by the CTI scores. An exploratory factor analysis was done in order to investigate the factor structure of the Turkish CTI on the basis of Turkish teachers' scores. Cronbach alpha internal consistency coefficient was used to investigate the reliability of inventory. © 2008 Egitim Danişmanligi ve Araşstirmalari İletişim Hiznietleri Tic. Ltd.Şti; Daha fazlası Daha az

Turkish efl student teachers' perceptions on the role of electronic portfolios in their professional development

Kocoglu, Z.

Article | 2008 | Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology7 ( 3 ) , pp.71 - 79

There has been vast evidence to support the potential of electronic portfolios (e-portfolio) as tools for enhancing reflective thinking and professional development of student teachers. However, no study has been carried out to specifically determine English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student teachers' perceptions on the role of eportfolios in their professional development. Therefore, this descriptive study investigated the perceptions of EFL student teachers on e-portfolios as a learning tool. Results of analysis of student teachers' interviews identified several themes, indicating that e-portfolios helped student teachers keep c . . .urrent with innovations in the digital world; a fancy tool that serves them in the job search; and a collection of materials that showed their best work; an opportunity to work collaboratively which in turn support their ongoing professional development. However, the student teachers in this study did not believe that electronic portfolios can be an important tool to develop reflective thinking Daha fazlası Daha az

Efficacy of treatment with a kinaesthetic ability training device on balance and mobility after stroke: A randomized controlled study

Gok, H. | Geler-Kulcu, D. | Alptekin, N. | Dincer, G.

Article | 2008 | Clinical Rehabilitation22 ( 10.11.2020 ) , pp.922 - 930

Objective: To investigate whether the addition of a kinaesthetic ability training device could enhance the effect of a conventional rehabilitation programme on balance and mobility in hemiparetic patients late after stroke. Design: Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial. Setting: The rehabilitation ward of a university hospital. Thirty hemiparetic patients (mean age (SD) of 57.4 (8.1) years) late after stroke (mean time since stroke (SD) 545.2 (99.9) days) were assigned randomly to an experimental or a control group. Interventions: The control group (n = 15) participated in a conventional rehabilitation programme. The experi . . .mental group (n = 15) participated in balance training with a kinaesthetic ability training device in addition to a conventional rehabilitation programme for four weeks, five days a week. Outcome measures: Kinaesthetic ability training static and dynamic balance indices, balance and lower extremity subscores of the Fugl-Meyer Stroke Assessment Instrument (FMA), total motor and locomotor subitem scores of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. Results: The experimental group had greater improvement in measures of balance including static (P = 0.045) and dynamic balance index (P = 0.001) and FMA balance score (P = 0.001) than the control group. No between-group differences were detected in subscore of FMA, total motor and locomotor subscores of FIM. There were significant improvements in balance subscores of FMA, static and dynamic balance indexes in the experimental group and in sub-item scores of FIM and lower extremity scores of FMA in both groups. Conclusion: Kinaesthetic ability trainingin addition to a conventional rehabilitation programme is effective in improving balance late after stroke. However, this improvement is not reflected in individual functional status. © 2008 SAGE Publications Daha fazlası Daha az

Experimental investigation of granular flow through an orifice

Ahn, H. | Başaranoglu, Z. | Yilmaz, M. | Bugutekin, A. | Gül, M.Z.

Article | 2008 | Powder Technology186 ( 1 ) , pp.65 - 71

The characteristics of continuous, steady granular flow through a flat-plate orifice have been experimentally investigated. In particular, the normal stress exerted on the orifice plate has been measured by the normal stress gauge which consists of a strain gauge attached to a cantilever beam. The cantilever beam supports the orifice plate which is freely hanging, and thus normal stresses on the orifice plate have been measured by strains developed in the beam due to normal forces on the plate by particles. Discharge rates of granular particles through the orifice have, therefore, been studied as a function of the average normal str . . .ess on the orifice plate. The results show that granular flows through the orifice are characterized by three regimes. When the flow is not choked, the discharge rate increases with the increasing normal stress (Regime I). With the further increase of the normal stress, the discharge rate reaches a maximum, at which the flow appears to start choking. Once the flow becomes choked, the discharge rate starts decreasing (Regime II) for further increase of the normal stress and then becomes independent of the normal stress on the orifice plate (Regime III). The transitional Regime II where the discharge rate decreases with the increasing normal stress is observed to be unstable. The asymptotic discharge rates at Regime III for various orifice sizes and particle sizes are in good agreement with results available in the literature. The maximum discharge rates, which are observed when choking just starts, exceed the asymptotic discharge rates by approximately 20-30%. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Understanding the behaviour of infinite ladder circuits

C. Ucak | K. Yegin

Article | 2008 | European Journal of Physics29 ( 6 ) , pp.1201 - 1209

Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block of impedance is added. However, the impedance derived from this assumption may lead to incorrect conclusions if it is not treated carefully. Sometimes, in the literature, the input impedance behaviour of infinite ladder circuits is referred to as a paradox, leav . . .ing students and educators in doubt. This study intends to clarify this confusion and help to better comprehend the behaviour of the input impedance of infinite ladder circuits. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Comparison of unilateral posterior lumbar interbody fusion and bilateral posterior interbody fusion with simple discectomy at degenerative disc herniations

H.S. Karabekir | E.K. Atar | S. Yaycioglu | A. Yildizhan

Article | 2008 | Neurosciences13 ( 3 ) , pp.248 - 252

Objectives: To evaluate the early results of unilateral posterior lumbar interbody fusion technique in lumbar discectomy cases compared with simple discectomy and bilateral posterior interbody fusion cases using visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry outcomes instruments and radiological and physical examinations. Methods: The control group had 40 patients who underwent simple discectomy. In group one, 8 patients had recurrent disc herniations and facet joint hypertrophy, 21 patients had degenerative disc disease and facet joint hypertrophy. In this group polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used for protecting the disc height and r . . .ecurrence. In group 2, 15 patients had degenerative lumbar disc herniations and bilateral facet joint hypertrophy. All patients were operated upon between October 2002 between February 2004 at the Neurosurgery Department of Kocatepe University Medical School, and were followed by the help of radiological exams, VAS and Oswestry scores, and clinical exams. The groups were compared to each other statistically. Results: In the control group (n=40) there were recurrences and disc height loss. In group one (n=29) there were no recurrences and the height lost was limited. In group 2, (n=15) there was no recurrence, however, the lost disc height was more than group one. Conclusion: If the patient has degenerative disc disease, the use of unilateral posterior PEEK cage and interbody grafting is a safer mode of treatment after discectomy Daha fazlası Daha az

Efficacy of a home-based exercise program on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo compared with betahistine

Kulcu, D.G. | Yanik, B. | Boynukalin, Ş. | Kurtais, Y.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery37 ( 3 ) , pp.373 - 379

Objective: To determine the efficacy of a home-based exercise program by comparing it with betahistine in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Study Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting: Outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Patients: Thirty-eight patients (10 males, 28 females; mean age 46 ± 13 years) diagnosed as having BPPV. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to either an exercise or a medication group. In the medication group, betahistine was prescribed at 24 mg/d for 1 month. The exercise group was required to perform Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises six times/day for 4 w . . .eeks. Main Outcome Measures: The Vertigo, Dizziness, Imbalance Questionnaire (VDI), which consists of two subscales, the VDI symptom subscale (VDI-ss) and the VDI health-related quality of life (VDI-HRQoL) subscale, and the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS) were used for assessment at the beginning of the study and after 2 months. Results: The mean scores of the two components of the VDI and the VSS decreased in the exercise group by the fourth week. In the medication group, VSI mean scores, VDIss mean scores, and VSS mean scores decreased in the second week and VDI-HRQoL mean scores decreased in the fourth week. However, there were no significant differences between baseline and week 8. There were significant differences between groups regarding the change in the mean scores of the VDI (p = .001) and the VSS (p = .001) at the end of the study in favour of the exercise group. Conclusions: Exercise was found to be a better treatment choice than medication and may be preferable for patients with persistent or chronic vertigo Daha fazlası Daha az

The ascent of cat breeds: Genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations

Lipinski, M.J. | Froenicke, L. | Baysac, K.C. | Billings, N.C. | Leutenegger, C.M. | Levy, A.M. | Lyons, L.A.

Article | 2008 | Genomics91 ( 1 ) , pp.12 - 21

The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of . . .their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Small black spots in the stomach and duodenum

Erzin, Y. | Akyuz, U. | Pata, C.

Article | 2008 | Netherlands Journal of Medicine66 ( 3 ) , pp.12 - 21

[No abstract available]

Exact time dependent solutions to (1+1) Fokker-Planck equation via linearizing transformations to the Itô equations

Ünal, G. | Masood Khalique, C.

Conference Object | 2008 | Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics15 ( SUPPL.1 ) , pp.211 - 221

It is shown that invertible linearizing transformations of the one-dimensional Itô stochastic differential equations cast the associated Fokker-Planck equation to the heat equation. This leads to the time-dependent exact solutions to the Fokker-Planck equations via inverse transformations. To obtain the linearizing transformations of the Itô stochastic differential equation we have extended Gard's theorem to the timedependent case.

Window anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty in the management of high-pitched voice disorders

Kocak, I. | Dogan, M. | Tadihan, E. | Alkan Cakir, Z. | Bengisu, S. | Akpinar, M.

Article | 2008 | Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery134 ( 12 ) , pp.1263 - 1269

Objective: To present the success rate of a less invasive modification of Isshiki type III anterior commissure relaxation laryngoplasty technique in patients with high-pitched voice disorders. Design: Prospective case series. Setting: KBB Major Private Clinic of Istanbul Surgery Hospital and the University of Yeditepe Hospital. Patients: Twenty-one adult patients who believed that their high-pitched voices conflicted with their body image and/or gender identity. Intervention: Type III thyroplasty for pitch alteration. Main Outcome Measures: Comparison of preoperative and postoperative (>6 months) fundamental frequency levels, diplop . . .honia, perception of body image and pitch, and subjective ratings of comfort during vocalization. Results: The patients were mostly male (mean age, 30.5 years). The most frequent cause of high-pitched voice was sulcus vocalis (n=14), followed by constitutional causes (n=5), mutational falsetto (n=1), and severe glottic scarring secondary to childhood diphtheria (n=1). After surgery, the fundamental frequency dropped significantly from a mean of 213.81 Hz to 149.86 Hz ( Daha fazlası Daha az

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