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Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering for biofilm characterization

Keleştemur, S. | Avci, E. | Çulha, Mustafa

Review | 2018 | Chemosensors6 ( 1 )

Biofilms are a communal way of living for microorganisms in which microorganism cells are surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Most microorganisms can live in biofilm form. Since microorganisms are everywhere, understanding biofilm structure and composition is crucial for making the world a better place to live, not only for humans but also for other living creatures. Raman spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique and provides fingerprint information about an analyte of interest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a form of this technique and provides enhanced scattering of the analyte that is in close vicin . . .ity of a nanostructured noble metal surface such as silver or gold. In this review, the applications of both techniques and their combination with other biofilm analysis techniques for characterization of composition and structure of biofilms are discussed. © 2018 by the authors Daha fazlası Daha az

Gynaecological cancers and leptin: A focus on the endometrium and ovary

Ray, A | Fornsaglio, J | Dogan, S | Hedau, S | Naik, SLD | De, A

Review | 2018 | FACTS VIEWS AND VISION IN OBGYN10 ( 1 ) , pp.5 - 18

Obesity has an influence on the risk and prognosis of different types of cancers of the female reproductive tract. In the uterus, a common site for neoplasms is the endometrium, the inner lining tissue. Generally, obesity has been documented to be involved in endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. Obesity may influence the cancer risk by various mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, dysregulation of sex hormones and abnormal secretion of hormone-like cytokines or adipokines from adipose tissue. One of the important pro-inflammatory adipokines is leptin, which acts via its transmembrane receptors (Ob-R). In normal conditions, . . .leptin functions in the hypothalamic anorexigenic pathway to maintain the energy homeostasis. Conversely, in obesity, leptin participates in the pro-inflammatory processes. Several clinical studies have suggested that leptin and Ob-R play a role in the pathological processes of endometrial cancer. In different endometrial cancer cell lines, laboratory findings also have demonstrated leptin's link to various neoplastic phenomena such as cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and oestrogenic activity. Furthermore, endometrial cancer risk could be increased in ovarian pathology like polycystic ovary syndrome, which is commonly associated with obesity. It is noteworthy that leptin participates in both physiological and pathological conditions of the ovary. Leptin has shown pro-tumorigenic effects in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Generally, reduced serum leptin levels have been observed in ovarian cancer patients. However, overexpression of leptin and Ob-R in ovarian cancer tissue has indicated aggressive disease. Understanding the role of leptin-related intracellular signalling pathways in tumour development could be helpful in early cancer detection Daha fazlası Daha az

The importance of the structural similarity of drugs used for depression and inflammation, two comorbid diseases

Önen Bayram, F.E. | Reis, R. | Tunçer, B. | Sipahi, H.

Review | 2018 | Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry18 ( 16 ) , pp.1416 - 1421

Growing evidence links inflammation to depression and the combination of antiinflammatory drugs with an antidepressant to treat depressive symptoms is currently suggested. There are only few studies concerning the molecular mechanism underlying this comorbidity, and many of them point out the importance of the tryptophan pathway. There is yet no data that analyzes the structural similarity of the molecules used for the treatment of these comorbid diseases. This review aimed first to classify current antidepressant drugs and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) according to their structure. Molecules with two aromatic rings . . . linked with a heteroatom or a carbonyl group (vortioxetine, ketoprofen, diclofenac), or presenting a naphtyl moiety in their structure (duloxetine, agomelatine, naproxen, nabumetone) were found to be structurally related. The antidepressant activity of these NSAIDs and the anti-inflammatory activity of these antidepressants were investigated. The literature search interestingly revealed reports indicating a serotonin-related antidepressant activity of the NSAIDs for structures found to be structurally similar to some antidepressants. Similarly, the antiinflammatory activity of the corresponding antidepressants was found to be correlated to the tryptophan metabolism pathway. These findings suggest a common molecular mechanism involved in both of the diseases and exhibit the importance of the molecular structure for a drug to be a potent antidepressant and/or anti-inflammatory agent. © 2018 Bentham Science Publishers Daha fazlası Daha az

The impact of judicial preferences and political context on Constitutional Court decisions: Evidence from Turkey

Aydin-Cakir, A.

Review | 2018 | International Journal of Constitutional Law16 ( 4 ) , pp.1101 - 1120

Many scholars have asserted that in countries where one political party dominates the political sphere, the likelihood of judges deciding against the government diminishes. Although the underlying logic of this argument is quite appealing, it does not explain why in certain cases judges ignore possible political retaliation and give anti-government decisions. Arguing that judicial preferences and the political context under which judges operate are in constant interaction, the goal of this article is to explain whether, and to what extent, the judges' preferences moderate the impact of political fragmentation on the court's invalida . . .tion of laws. The study uses an original data set including all decisions made by the Turkish Constitutional Court between 1984 and 2010. The empirical findings show that while the court's political preferences vastly attenuate the impact of the political context on judicial behavior, its legal preferences have a trivial moderating effect. To put it more specifically, the results show that the effect of political fragmentation on judicial behavior highly decreases when there is a weak political alignment between the court and the government enacting the law under review. Moreover, the findings show that even under favorable political conditions for assertive behav¬ ior, the judges abstain from annulling laws based on individual rights violations. © The Author(s) 2019. Oxford University Press and New Yor Daha fazlası Daha az

Towards frailty biomarkers: Candidates from genes and pathways regulated in aging and age-related diseases

Cardoso, A.L. | Fernandes, A. | Aguilar-Pimentel, J.A. | de Angelis, M.H. | Guedes, J.R. | Brito, M.A. | Trendelenburg, A.-U.

Review | 2018 | Ageing Research Reviews47 , pp.214 - 277

Objective: Use of the frailty index to measure an accumulation of deficits has been proven a valuable method for identifying elderly people at risk for increased vulnerability, disease, injury, and mortality. However, complementary molecular frailty biomarkers or ideally biomarker panels have not yet been identified. We conducted a systematic search to identify biomarker candidates for a frailty biomarker panel. Methods: Gene expression databases were searched ( including GenAge, AnAge, LongevityMap, CellAge, DrugAge, Digital Aging Atlas) to identify genes regulated in aging, longevity, and age-r . . .elated diseases with a focus on secreted factors or molecules detectable in body fluids as potential frailty biomarkers. Factors broadly expressed, related to several “hallmark of aging” pathways as well as used or predicted as biomarkers in other disease settings, particularly age-related pathologies, were identified. This set of biomarkers was further expanded according to the expertise and experience of the authors. In the next step, biomarkers were assigned to six “hallmark of aging” pathways, namely (1) inflammation, (2) mitochondria and apoptosis, (3) calcium homeostasis, (4) fibrosis, (5) NMJ (neuromuscular junction) and neurons, (6) cytoskeleton and hormones, or (7) other principles and an extensive literature search was performed for each candidate to explore their potential and priority as frailty biomarkers. Results: A total of 44 markers were evaluated in the seven categories listed above, and 19 were awarded a high priority score, 22 identified as medium priority and three were low priority. In each category high and medium priority markers were identified. Conclusion: Biomarker panels for frailty would be of high value and better than single markers. Based on our search we would propose a core panel of frailty biomarkers consisting of (1) CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), IL-6 (interleukin 6), CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1), (2) GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15), FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5), vimentin (VIM), (3) regucalcin (RGN/SMP30), calreticulin, (4) PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), AGT (angiotensinogen), (5) BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor), progranulin (PGRN), (6) ?-klotho (KL), FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), FGF21, leptin (LEP), (7) miRNA (micro Ribonucleic acid) panel (to be further defined), AHCY (adenosylhomocysteinase) and KRT18 (keratin 18). An expanded panel would also include (1) pentraxin (PTX3), sVCAM/ICAM (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1/Intercellular adhesion molecule 1), defensin ?, (2) APP (amyloid beta precursor protein), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), (3) S100B (S100 calcium binding protein B), (4) TGFß (transforming growth factor beta), PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), TGM2 (transglutaminase 2), (5) sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycosylation end products), HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), C3/C1Q (complement factor 3/1Q), ST2 (Interleukin 1 receptor like 1), agrin (AGRN), (6) IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), resistin (RETN), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), ghrelin (GHRL), growth hormone (GH), (7) microparticle panel (to be further defined), GpnmB (glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B) and lactoferrin (LTF). We believe that these predicted panels need to be experimentally explored in animal models and frail cohorts in order to ascertain their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential. © 2018 The Author Daha fazlası Daha az

Notes: Two glass beads from wisad pools in the jordanian black desert

Dussubieux, L. | Schmidt, K. | Rowan, Y.M. | Wasse, A.M.R. | Rollefson, G.O.

Review | 2018 | Journal of Glass Studies60 , pp.303 - 306

[No abstract available]

Nutrition and production related energies and exergies of foods

Özilgen, M.

Review | 2018 | Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews96 , pp.275 - 295

Nutritional energy (En) and nutritional exergy (Exn) are the inherent thermodynamic properties of foods; specific cumulative energy (CEnC) and exergy (CExC) utilization are thermodynamic properties associated with their production. Cumulative specific carbon dioxide emission (CCO2E) is an environmental parameter used in parallel with the other thermodynamic parameters to describe the specific carbon dioxide emission during production. Interrelation of Exn and En is assessed by referring to 87 foods. Values of (CEnC), (CExC) and (CCO2E) are presented for 146 foods. The data presented here are expected to make it easier to perform ene . . .rgy and exergy balances around people and animals while assessing their diets, and also while assessing food production systems. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive source of data in thermodynamic analyses pertinent to food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Use of biphasic insulin aspart 30 in type 2 diabetes treatment: Expert panel recommendations

Akalın, S. | Aydın, H. | Balcı, M.K. | Çömlekçi, A. | Dinççağ, N. | Erbaş, T. | Ünlühızarcı, K.

Review | 2018 | Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism22 ( 3 ) , pp.183 - 197

The goals of Type 2 diabetes treatment are to eliminate the hyperglycemia resulting from insulin insufficiency and/or insulin resistance, delay beta cell damage/depletion, and prevent other metabolic co-morbidities and complications. In the current treatment algorithms, lifestyle changes (medical nutrition therapy, physical exercise) and oral anti-diabetics are followed by insulin therapy, which is considered a replacement therapy for Type 2 diabetes. Pre-mixed insulin preparations, which are an option for patients with poor blood glucose level control under oral anti-diabetics treatment, have been developed to meet both basal and p . . .randial insulin needs by simulating the physiological changes in insulin levels. The consensus on the necessity of individualizing insulin therapy requires physicians to have a detailed knowledge of the various uses of insulin. Therefore, this comprehensive consensus statement has been prepared by a panel of expert endocrinologists from different regions of Turkey to help physicians use biphasic insulin aspart 30 in suitable patients at the right time. In this statement, expert panel opinions on (a) Recommendations for the appropriate initiation, titration, and intensification of insulin treatment, and (b) The treatment algorithms in initiation, titration, and intensification of biphasic insulin aspart 30 treatment and special conditions specific to changing treatment regimen are presented. © 2018 by Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism Association Daha fazlası Daha az

CD38/cADPR Signaling Pathway in Airway Disease: Regulatory Mechanisms

Deshpande, D.A. | Guedes, A.G.P. | Graeff, R. | Dogan, S. | Subramanian, S. | Walseth, T.F. | Kannan, M.S.

Review | 2018 | Mediators of Inflammation2018 , pp.183 - 197

Asthma is an inflammatory disease in which proinflammatory cytokines have a role in inducing abnormalities of airway smooth muscle function and in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Inflammatory cytokines alter calcium (Ca2+) signaling and contractility of airway smooth muscle, which results in nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness to agonists. In this context, Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in airway smooth muscle and changes in these regulatory mechanisms encompass a major component of airway hyperresponsiveness. Although dynamic Ca2+ regulation is complex, phospholipase C/inositol tris-phosphate (PLC/IP3) and CD38-cyclic . . . ADP-ribose (CD38/cADPR) are two major pathways mediating agonist-induced Ca2+ regulation in airway smooth muscle. Altered CD38 expression or enhanced cyclic ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity associated with CD38 contributes to human pathologies such as asthma, neoplasia, and neuroimmune diseases. This review is focused on investigations on the role of CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose signaling in airway smooth muscle in the context of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of CD38 expression. The specific roles of transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 in the transcriptional regulation of CD38 expression and of miRNAs miR-140-3p and miR-708 in the posttranscriptional regulation and the underlying mechanisms of such regulation are discussed. © 2018 Deepak A. Deshpande et al Daha fazlası Daha az

What is the survival rate of dental implants in Turkey? A systematic review

Cabbar, F. | Burdurlu, M.Ç. | Işiksaçan, N.S. | Atalay, B. | Çapar, G.D.

Review | 2018 | Biomedical Research (India)29 ( 3 ) , pp.485 - 495

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the failures of dental implants in Turkey and to investigate the complications, which may lead to implant loss. Study Design: The Systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA statement and Cochrane guidelines. PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, TUBITAK ULAKBIM databases were searched for both in English and Turkish up to 2015. Data on implant failure, demographic variables and outcomes were included. Nonclinical and animal reports were excluded. Search was conducted by two authors and conflicts were resolved by a third reader. Results: Seventeen reports were sa . . .tisfied the inclusion criteria. In total, 1764 (51.19% female and 48.81% male) participants were included. A total of 4487 implants were used. Total implant success was 97.48% (61 early and 52 late failures) in a follow-up period for 42.71 ± 33.78 months. The failure reasons were infection (38.9%), lack of osseointegration (44.4%), implant fractures (5.8%), periimplantitis (1.76%), sensory disturbances (2.65%). Conclusion: Immediate and late implantation has similar failure rates and failure rates may increase with time. Implants have similar survival rates with the literature in Turkey region as well. It was observed that few reports with limited data were reported considering the high number of implants placed in the Turkey. © 2018, Scientific Publishers of India. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Quercetin-mediated regulation of signal transduction cascades and microRNAs: Natural weapon against cancer

Farooqi, A.A. | Jabeen, S. | Attar, Rukset | Yaylim, I. | Xu, B.

Review | 2018 | Journal of Cellular Biochemistry119 ( 12 ) , pp.9664 - 9674

Recent technological and analytical breakthroughs in genomics and proteomics have deepened our understanding related to the multifaceted nature of cancer. Because of therapeutically challenging nature of cancer, there has been a renewed interest in phytochemistry, and much attention is currently being given to the identification of signaling pathway inhibitors. Data obtained through high-throughput technologies has provided a broader landscape of wiring maps of complex oncogenic signaling networks, thus revealing novel therapeutic opportunities. Increasingly, it is being realized that although our knowledge related to physiological . . .and pathophysiological roles of signal transduction cascades has evolved rapidly, the clinical development of signaling pathway inhibitors has been challenging. Quercetin has attracted considerable attention because of its amazingly high pharmacological value. Research over decades has sequentially shown that quercetin effectively inhibited cancer development and progression. In this review, we have attempted to set the spotlight on the regulation of different cell signaling pathways by quercetin. We partition this multicomponent review into how quercetin effectively regulates the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling cascade in different types of cancers. We also provide an overview of the regulation of NOTCH and SHH pathways by quercetin. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have also emerged as versatile regulators of cancer, and contemporary studies have shed light on the ability of quercetin to control different miRNAs in various cancers. We have scattered information related to NOTCH and SHH pathways, and future studies must converge on the investigation of these pathways to see how quercetin modulates the signaling machinery of these pathways. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Emerging Roles of Meis1 in Cardiac Regeneration, Stem Cells and Cancer

Aksoz, M. | Turan, R.D. | Albayrak, E. | Kocabas, F.

Review | 2018 | Current drug targets19 ( 2 ) , pp.181 - 190

BACKGROUND: Meis1 is a member of three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) homeodomain transcription factors. Studies in the last decade have shown that Meis1 has crucial roles in cardiac regeneration, stem cell function, and tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE: We have recently demonstrated that knocking out of Meis1 in adult cardiomyocytes resulted in the induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation. This suggests that targeting of Meis1 might be utilized in the manipulation of cardiomyocyte cell cycle post cardiac injuries. In addition, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) specific deletion of Meis1 leads to in vivo expansion of HSCs pool. Thus, targetin . . .g Meis1 may lead to not only cell cycle entry but also ex vivo and in vivo expansion of HSCs. On the other hand, Meis1 transcriptionally regulates the expression of hypoxic tumor markers, namely Hif-1? and Hif-2?. Hif-1? and Hif-2? are involved in the induction of cytoplasmic glycolysis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. CONCLUSION: Studies highlight emerging roles of Meis1 towards development of new therapeutic approaches in the treatment of myocardial injuries, bone failure, and cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at Daha fazlası Daha az

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