Review | 2018 | Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews96 , pp.275 - 295
Nutritional energy (En) and nutritional exergy (Exn) are the inherent thermodynamic properties of foods; specific cumulative energy (CEnC) and exergy (CExC) utilization are thermodynamic properties associated with their production. Cumulative specific carbon dioxide emission (CCO2E) is an environmental parameter used in parallel with the other thermodynamic parameters to describe the specific carbon dioxide emission during production. Interrelation of Exn and En is assessed by referring to 87 foods. Values of (CEnC), (CExC) and (CCO2E) are presented for 146 foods. The data presented here are expected to make it easier to perform ene . . .rgy and exergy balances around people and animals while assessing their diets, and also while assessing food production systems. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive source of data in thermodynamic analyses pertinent to food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Lt
Degerli, B. | Özilgen, M.
Article | 2018 | International Journal of Exergy25 ( 2 ) , pp.132 - 151
Ertürk, A. | Özilgen, M.
Article | 2018 | International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics4 ( 2 ) , pp.151 - 182
A conceptual network of chicken meat and egg producing and consuming businesses consisting of a chicken farm, a restaurant, a pet food manufacturing plant, a vegetable garden, an olive garden, a grain field and a manure gasifier was assessed in terms of cumulative degree of performance (CDP) and cumulative carbon dioxide emission (CCO2). Five different cases with different resource utilisation preferences were assessed. Case 1 was the base line, where manure was not gasified and chemical fertilisers were used in agriculture. In case 1, CDP and CCO2 were 0.66 and 7,500 kgCO2/year, respectively. As chemical fertilisers were replaced w . . .ith microbial fertilisers and manure was gasified sustainability improved. In case 5, only microbial fertilisers were used in agriculture and the manure was gasified. The highest CDP, 1.05, and the lowest CCO2, 2,539 kgCO2/year, were obtained in case 5, therefore, it was regarded as the most sustainable case, among the alternatives assessed. Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Yavuztürk, B. | Bucak, S. | Özilgen, M.
Article | 2018 | Journal of Cleaner Production198 , pp.242 - 257
Introduction of the waste of the pharmaceutical industry to the biosphere creates unusual potential disease patterns. Achieving the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production by utilizing the minimum energy and generating as little waste as possible are among the reasonable cleaner production practices. Zoledronic acid is the API of some bone-disease drugs. It is synthesized via the reaction of 1h-imidazole-1-yl- acetic acid hydrochloride with phosphorous acid and phosphorous halogen at moderate temperatures. The product is later separated by crystallization in water. Since the concentration of API is very low in the finished . . . product, generally 50 g of API satisfies the annual market demand. Chemical processes are generally investigated to determine the most convenient production procedures and equipment. In the studies performed in small scale set up, it is important to foresee an upscale design. Exergy utilization is among the considerations in process design and there is almost no information available in the literature yet, regarding the exergy analysis of the production processes of pharmaceuticals. “Cradle to grave” exergy analyses, beginning with the raw materials and ending with retail packaging of a pharmaceutical product is studied here by referring to bisphosphonate production. Although the synthesis stage of this study refers to the production of a single API, the packaging stage of the process refers to the entire pharmaceutical industry, where similar practices are employed. During the chemical synthesis of zoledronic acid under GMP (good manufacturing practice) conditions, the most energy consuming step was found to be crystallization. On the other hand, the most energy consuming step during sterile finished product manufacturing was filling, followed by sterilization of the primary packaging equipment and the materials, and the operation of the HVAC system. The initial cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) was calculated to be 1.47 × 10-2% for the API synthesis, however exergy efficiency of the synthesis process to 2.29 × 10-2% with increasing the yield through process optimization. The CDP of the finished product was 17% and 75% before and after packaging of the finished product, respectively. Synthesis at the maximum attainable conversion ratio and the highest exergy efficiency assures minimum waste generation. © 2018 Elsevier Lt
Hazal Yalçinkaya, B. | Genç, S. | Özilgen, M. | Yılmaz, B.
Book Part | 2018 | Comprehensive Energy Systems03.05.2020 , pp.638 - 672
The voluntary and involuntary communication within the body occurs through the nervous system. The building blocks of the nervous system are electrically excitable neurons and neuroglia. They require large amount of ATP in a very short period of time to be able to reestablish resting membrane conditions after transmitting signals as electric current; entropy generation accompanies this process. Generally, a single neuron cannot provide the sufficient energy to achieve this and will need the support of neuroglia. This chapter includes theories of signal transmission along the neurons parallel with the basic thermodynamic knowledge to . . . describe energy supply and consumption. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
Çlatak, J. | Özilgen, M. | Olcay, A.B. | Yılmaz, B.
Article | 2018 | International Journal of Exergy25 ( 1 ) , pp.1 - 33
Thermodynamic aspects of skeletal and cardiac muscle work performance are assessed with the data obtained from the literature. Since the second law muscle work efficiency decreases with declining metabolic energy conversion efficiency in the mitochondria, followed by structural failure of the muscles during ageing, the thermodynamic aspects of the muscle work ageing process were simulated by incorporating the decreasing second law muscle work efficiency with the exercise data obtained with the healthy young adults. Within limits of the data analysed here, glucose utilisation ability of the cardiac muscle appears to be the most criti . . .cal factor determining its work performance. The left and the right ventricles of the enlarged heart had the ability of utilising approximately 3.5 and 2.7 times less glucose, respectively, than their healthy counterparts. The work performance and the entropy generation by the enlarged and the healthy hearts maintained the same ratios. Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Semerciöz, A.S. | Yılmaz, B. | Özilgen, M.
Article | 2018 | International Journal of Exergy26 ( 3 ) , pp.359 - 391
Entropy generation behaviour of the rats is affected by their diet and nature of being lean or obese. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the obese Zucker rats may generate 22,092 kJ/K of life span entropy when fed soybean oil diet and 38,718 kJ/K of entropy when fed with butter fat. Their lean counterparts may generate 15,314 kJ/K of life span entropy when fed with soybean oil diet and 47,657 kJ/K of entropy and when fed with butter fat diet. The lean Zucker rats fed with butter fat diet had 92%, while the obese Zucker rats fed with soybean oil diet had 72%, wasted life-time work potential. Obese Zucker rats fed with butter fat diet . . . performed approximately 48% more total physical work and generated 48% more muscular heat through their life span than the lean rats fed with soybean oil diet. Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd
Çatak, J. | Semerciöz, A.S. | Yalçinkaya, B.H. | Yılmaz, B. | Özilgen, M.
Book Part | 2018 | Comprehensive Energy Systems04.05.2020 , pp.1131 - 1158
The major energy source in the world is solar energy. Only a small fraction of this energy is absorbed by plants to produce starch, for example, a glucose polymer, via photosynthesis. Glucose molecules are employed to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in energy metabolism, which may be utilized to synthesize new plant cells. Herbivore animals survive on plants; carnivores prey on the herbivores. Both plant and animal cells store the chemical energy in their structures in the form of high-energy molecules. The raw material of fossil fuels is fossilized biological structures, for example, plant and animal cells. A similar conversio . . .n may be achieved by direct conversion, by skipping the fossil formation step, in biodiesel factories. The fossil fuel-rich areas of the world once housed rich ecosystems, before their inhabitants were fossilized. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years. In biological structures, growth and reproduction and muscle work performance are achieved with ATP expenditure. In all of these processes substantial amounts of entropy are generated. Hormonal control of this energy uptake and utilization regulates functioning of anabolism and catabolism; the brain provides the balance between them. Imposing energy (calorie) restriction on the body may cause substantial changes in numerous body functions. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
Hazal Yalçinkaya, B. | Genç, S. | Çatak, J. | Özilgen, M. | Yılmaz, B.
Book Part | 2018 | Comprehensive Energy Systems03.05.2020 , pp.95 - 125
Editorial | 2018 | International Journal of Energy Research42 ( 12 ) , pp.3707 - 3710
In a recent perspective paper, Dincer's 6-step approach in teaching thermodynamics was explained with reference to Bryton and refrigeration cycles. In the present study the benefits of this approach was assessed with nutrition, as a distant example. One of the best advantages of using this guided tool was found as its functionality in avoiding the analogy mistakes and pointing the spots where further research is needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.