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Subcritical water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant constituents from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hulls

Erşan, S. | Güçlü Üstündağ, Ö. | Carle, R. | Schweiggert, R.M.

Article | 2018 | Food Chemistry253 , pp.46 - 54

Pistachio hulls, important by-products of pistachio processing, were extracted using an environmentally friendly process with subcritical water (SCW) at a pressure of 6.9 MPa in the range of 110 and 190 °C, and a flow rate of 4 ml/min. Detailed HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn analyses allowed the identification of 49 phenolic compounds in the SCW extracts. Total gallotannin yields up to 33 g/kg were reached at 150–170 °C, where gallic acid (22.2 g/kg) and penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (9.77 g/kg) levels were 13.2- and 10.6-fold higher than those in the aqueous methanol extracts. Flavonols were also effectively extracted at 110–150 °C (4.37–5.65 g/kg . . .), while anacardic acid recovery was poor (1.13–2.77 g/kg). Accordingly, high amounts of anacardic acids (up to 50.7 g/kg) were retained in the extraction residue, revealing that SCW extraction allowed selective extraction of gallotannins and flavonols. Antioxidant capacities ranged from 0.68 to 1.20 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g for SCW extracts increasing with temperature up 190 °C. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

The effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats

Sahin, H.H. | Cumbul, A. | Uslu, U. | Yilmaz, Z. | Ercan, F. | Alican, I.

Article | 2018 | Tissue and Cell51 , pp.68 - 76

This study evaluated ulceroprotective and antioxidant effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 against gastric damage in rats. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.25 µg/kg) or saline for 14 days. On day-15, the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg; subcutaneously), the inhibitor of sulfhydryl groups N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) or ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mg/kg; orally) was given prior to 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Animals were euthanized at 60 min post ulcerogenic challenge (0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (0.2 mL; orally). Stomach and b . . .lood were collected for biochemical and histological evaluations. HCl/Ethanol group revealed severely damaged mucous and glandular epithelium with diffuse hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration (microscopic score: 10.67 ± 0.67 and ulcer index: 33.13 ± 5.09). 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreased the extent of damage (microscopic score: 6.80 ± 0.02 and ulcer index: 19.00 ± 4.34; p < 0.05), and the elevations in gastric malondialdehyde level (p < 0.001), myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.001), nuclear factor-?B expression (p < 0.05), and apoptotic index (p < 0.05) following HCl/Ethanol challenge. Decreased gastric glutathione following HCl/Ethanol administration was restored by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (p < 0.01). These findings demonstrated protection of the gastric mucosa against HCl/Ethanol-induced injury by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 via attenuation of inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Modeling 3D melt electrospinning writing by response surface methodology

Dayan, C.B. | Afghah, F. | Okan, B.S. | Yıldız, M. | Menceloglu, Y. | Çulha, Mustafa | Koc, B.

Article | 2018 | Materials and Design148 , pp.87 - 95

Three-dimensional (3D) melt electrospinning writing (MEW) is a promising technique for 3D printing of porous scaffolds with well-defined geometrical features. The diameter of electrospun fibers strongly affect the achievable resolution and consequently several other physical, mechanical, and structural properties of the fabricated scaffold. However, there are a few process parameters which significantly affect the size of electrospun fibers. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the critical and optimized process parameters and their interaction effects on the desired fiber diameter. Four process . . .parameters, including collector speed, tip-to-collector distance, applied pressure, and voltage were studied considering their practical ranges. The results showed that all the parameters except the applied voltage had a significant effect on the printed fiber diameters. A generalized model for the interaction effects of the parameters was introduced which can be used as a framework for selecting the process parameters to achieve the desired fiber diameter. The developed model was validated by choosing random process parameters and printing three-dimensional scaffolds. The results confirm that the predicted fiber diameters match closely with the actual fiber diameters measured directly from the printed scaffold. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Determining type 2 diabetes risk factors for the adults: A community based study from Turkey

Cosansu, G. | Celik, S. | Özcan, S. | Olgun, N. | Yıldırım, N. | Gulyuz Demir, H.

Article | 2018 | Primary Care Diabetes12 ( 5 ) , pp.409 - 415

Aims: This study aimed to determine risk factors for type 2 diabetes among adults who were not diagnosed with diabetes. Methods: Adults were included in this study within the public activities performed on World Diabetes Day (n = 1872). Data were collected using the FINDRISC questionnaire and a short questionnaire. Results: Participants’ mean age was 39.35 ± 10.40. The mean FINDRISC score was 7.46 ± 4.62, women's mean score was higher than that for men. The FINDRISC score indicates that 7.4% of the participants were in the highrisk group. Among participants, BMI value of 65.1% was 25 kg/m 2 and higher, waist circumference of 58% was . . . over the threshold value; and 50.7% did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Of the participants, 9.5% had a history of high blood glucose, families of 38.9% had a history of diabetes. The mean FINDRISC score was in the slightly high category, 121 participants were found likely to be diagnosed with diabetes within ten years if no action was taken. Conclusions: It is recommended the risk screening studies to be conducted and the FINDRISC tool to be used in Turkey, where diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly, to determine diabetes risks in the early period and to raise social awareness for diabetes. © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europ Daha fazlası Daha az

Oxidized regenerated cellulose cross-linked gelatin microparticles for rapid and biocompatible hemostasis: A versatile cross-linking agent

Aydemir Sezer, U. | Kocer, Z. | Sahin, İ. | Aru, B. | Yanıkkaya Demirel, G. | Sezer, S.

Article | 2018 | Carbohydrate Polymers200 , pp.624 - 632

Effective hemostatic materials are of utmost importance for preventing bleeding in emergencies and critical injuries. Combining biodegradability, good hemostatic properties and biocompatibility, gelatin is one of the most reliable materials clinically used for preventing internal bleeding in surgeries and for stopping external hemorrhage. Cross-linking is a useful method for enhancing the absorption capacity of gelatin and for controlling the degradation process. Existing and commonly used aldehyde-containing cross-linking agents lack reliability with respect to the control of hemostatic effect, solubility and toxicity. In this stud . . .y; gelatin was cross-linked with sodium oxidized regenerated cellulose (NaORC) to produce hemostatic microparticles. The NaORC was used at different ratios; and the studies on hemostatic efficiency and cytotoxicity under in vitro conditions demonstrated rapid arrest of bleeding alongside biocompatibility. These microparticles employing NaORC as a cross-linking agent for the first time demonstrated a unique structure for stopping bleeding with biocompatibility, and opened the way for different forms of cross-linked structures to be used in other biomaterials applications. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Nutrition and production related energies and exergies of foods

Özilgen, M.

Review | 2018 | Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews96 , pp.275 - 295

Nutritional energy (En) and nutritional exergy (Exn) are the inherent thermodynamic properties of foods; specific cumulative energy (CEnC) and exergy (CExC) utilization are thermodynamic properties associated with their production. Cumulative specific carbon dioxide emission (CCO2E) is an environmental parameter used in parallel with the other thermodynamic parameters to describe the specific carbon dioxide emission during production. Interrelation of Exn and En is assessed by referring to 87 foods. Values of (CEnC), (CExC) and (CCO2E) are presented for 146 foods. The data presented here are expected to make it easier to perform ene . . .rgy and exergy balances around people and animals while assessing their diets, and also while assessing food production systems. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive source of data in thermodynamic analyses pertinent to food processing and nutrition. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Toxicological assessment of epinephrine and norepinephrine by analog approach

Aydın, A. | Tugcu, G.

Article | 2018 | Food and Chemical Toxicology118 , pp.726 - 732

Epinephrine and norepinephrine have been used in the management of anaphylactic reactions and cardiac resuscitation, along with treatment of asthma and glaucoma extensively, but their toxicological profiles are not yet completed. Based on this circumstance, various toxicological endpoints of epinephrine and norepinephrine were explored. Since there is a paucity of some endpoints' data, readacross was applied to fill the data gaps using analog approach. Along with structural similarity, biological and mechanistic plausibility were also considered in analog selection. The similarity justification and supporting experimental data were . . .provided for uncertainty evaluation. Short term repeated dose toxicity values as NOAEL and LOAEL belonging to epinephrine were used to estimate the repeated dose toxicity of norepinephrine. The in vivo and in vitro mutagenicity tests were considered representative of genotoxicity. Both chemicals are showed to be non-genotoxic. They are experimentally reported to cause developmental and reproductive toxicity. For the carcinogenicity endpoint, a conclusion could not be reached because similar compounds were seen to show conflicting results. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Risk-averse stochastic model predictive control-based real-time operation method for a wind energy generation system supported by a pumped hydro storage unit

Yıldıran, U. | Kayahan, İ.

Article | 2018 | Applied Energy226 , pp.631 - 643

A wind energy producer participating in deregulated markets needs to make contracts on the energy it will supply in the next day. Deviations from the contracts, which could occur due to wind uncertainties, are compensated in real-time balancing markets at a considerable cost. Therefore, developing advanced day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies minimizing such imbalance costs constitutes an important problem. There are several works on finding optimal day-ahead bids but the real-time operation problem is not studied well. Motivated by this fact, we propose a new strategy in which the day-ahead bids are computed by solv . . .ing a risk-averse stochastic program, and real-time operation is performed by a stochastic model predictive control-based algorithm with a risk control capability. The algorithm is applied to a realistic system composed of wind farms and a pumped hydro storage plant. Its performance is compared to a number of approaches appearing in the literature. Because the problem considered has two conflicting objectives of profit maximization and risk minimization, a Pareto optimality analysis is also conducted. Finally, the validity of a common practice followed in the literature, which is estimating the economic performance by bidding optimization, is investigated by comparing the estimate with the actual performance achieved by real-time operation methods. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Hierarchically porous polymer derived ceramics: A promising platform for multidrug delivery systems

Vakifahmetoglu, C. | Zeydanli, D. | Ozalp, V.C. | Borsa, B.A. | Soraru, G.D.

Article | 2018 | Materials and Design140 , pp.37 - 44

Mesoporous silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) components were formed with the use of “molecular spacer” (a sacrificial vinyl-terminated linear siloxane which while decomposing during pyrolysis generates pores with size proportional to the molecular weight), followed by a post-pyrolysis etching treatment by hydrofluoric acid (HF) to obtain C-rich SiOC samples having additional micro-/mesoporosity and specific surface area reaching to 774 m2/g. The biocompatibility of the samples was validated by hemolysis test, and their cargo/drug loading capacities were studied by two different sized polypeptides as model molecules. SiOC particles showed le . . .ss hemolysis compared to the reference material MCM-41. Similarly, the loading capacity and the release kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and vancomycin-loaded SiOC particles were improved compared to that of MCM-41. In the multi cargo loading/release capacity tests, done by using different sized molecules, Bio2-HF and MCM-41 were loaded both with fluorescein and BSA. While a lagging time in fluorescein release was observed for MCM-41, the release kinetics of fluorescein and BSA was not affected when they are loaded together in the hierarchical pores of Bio2-HF, allowing the release of both large and small cargo molecules. The antimicrobial activity tests showed that Bio2-HF performed better than MCM-41 particles in improving bactericidal activity. © 2017 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Output, renewable and non-renewable energy production, and international trade: Evidence from EU-15 countries

Halicioglu, F. | Ketenci, N.

Article | 2018 | Energy159 , pp.995 - 1002

This research presents first empirical evidence on the dynamic relationship between output, renewable and non-renewable energy production, international trade, capital and labour in the case of the EU-15 countries over the period of 1980–2015 for individual countries as well as a group. A simple production function of capital and labour is extended as such that it incorporates the impact of renewable and nonrenewable energy inputs, and international trade on output level. Econometric estimations of the extended production equations are carried out via ARDL approach to cointegration for individual country cases and panel GMM economet . . .ric technique for the entire EU-15. The ARDL empirical results indicate the existence of cointegration relationships amongst the variables in the case of seven countries of the EU-15, in addition to the GMM based, long-run relationship for the entire EU-15 as a panel. The ARDL procedure suggests that the relative impact of renewable and nonrenewable energy inputs on output levels vary considerably for individual countries. The GMM results demonstrate the existence of the relative importance of renewable and non-renewable energy inputs along with international trade on output in the EU-15 countries. This paper also discusses policy implications of the empirical results, as well as offering policy recommendations. © 2018 Elsevier Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

The results of Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure are mostly satisfactory in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus

Şaylı, U. | Akman, B. | Tanrıöver, A. | Kaspar, Ç. | Güven, M. | Özler, T.

Article | 2018 | Foot and Ankle Surgery24 ( 5 ) , pp.448 - 452

Background: Intrinsically stable diaphyseal osteotomy gained popularity in recent years for symptomatic hallux valgus deformities. In this study, Scarf osteotomy results, in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus, are presented. Methods and patients: Study group consisted of 40 feet of 32 (28 females, four males) patients surgically managed by Scarf osteotomy between September 2009 and 2011, with a mean age of 52,98 (range, 31–75) years at the time of surgery. Patient satisfaction and VAS were used for subjective evaluation while for objective measures AOFAS score, first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM and radiologica . . .l measurements (intermetatarsal, hallux valgus and distal metatarsal articular angles) were evaluated. Results: Mean follow-up period was 38 (range, 24–60) months. Sixteen feet (40%) were reported as very satisfied, 19 (47,5%) as satisfied and the remaining five (12,5%) as unsatisfied resulting with a total of 35 (87,5%) satisfaction. The mean preoperative VAS and AOFAS forefoot scores improved from 8,13 ± 0,791 to 2,68 ± 1,228 (p = 0,0001) and from 58,25 ± 6,15 to 78,25 ± 8,13 (p = 0,0001) on the final follow-up, respectively. The postoperative change of first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM was not statistically significant (p = 0,281). On the radiological evaluation; intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles improved from a mean value of 14,77 ± 1,76 to 8,13 ± 1,52° (p = 0,0001) and from 35,28 ± 5,86 to 20,10 ± 5,55° (p = 0,0001), respectively. Distal metatarsal articular angle did not show any statistically significant change (p = 0,195). Conclusion: Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure is a technically demanding procedure. The osteotomy is intrinsically stable and the correction power is high and the results are mostly satisfactory. © 201 Daha fazlası Daha az

Calculation of gamma ray attenuation coefficients of some granite samples using a Monte Carlo simulation code

Ozyurt, O. | Altinsoy, N. | Karaaslan, Ş.İ. | Bora, A. | Buyuk, B. | Erk, İ.

Article | 2018 | Radiation Physics and Chemistry144 , pp.271 - 275

In this study, GATE as a Monte Carlo code is used for calculation of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of some granite samples at 662, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The simulated results of mass attenuation coefficients were compared with the experimental and theoretical data given in previous study. Satisfactory agreement has been observed between the GATE code and XCOM results. Differences between experimental and theoretical results were between 0.7% and 14.7%. This can be explained by experimental error. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

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