A study of inherent noise sources present in a purpose built flame atomic magneto-optic rotation (AMOR) spectrometer system was carried out with a view to identifying their sources. Two different optical configurations were employed, a crossed polariser and a 45° offset polariser configuration. The offset polariser configuration was operated in both an AMOR and atomic absorption (AA) mode for the noise measurements. Two main interference frequencies were found to occur in all the optical measurement modes. An interference flame feature frequency (15.5 Hz -39.0 Hz) which arose from an "organ-pipe" effect in the gas flow . . . through the flame cooling sheets. The second interference frequency (at 100 Hz) was thought, to arise due to modulation of the analytes magneto-optic properties due to ripple on the electromagnet d.c. power supply. Photon noise and fluctuation noise were found to be present as background noise. The fluctuation noise was dominant at. higher analyte concentrations. The characteristics and origins of fluctuation noise are discussed and investigated for each measurement mode. The noise spectra of the conventional AA measurements were compared with those of the contemporary AMOR measurements, to ascertain any differences in noise power spectra which may affect, the signal-to-noise ratio
Analytical signals in an Atomic Magneto-Optic Rotation spectrometer are buried in noise at the limit of detection. The noisy analytical signals were analysed by carrying out mathematical correlation of their time domain waveforms. The noise components of signals were removed by auto-correlation to simplify the study. If noise interferes in analytical signals whose source is unclear, a cross-correlation of the output waveform with noise source may identify the source, e.g., mains frequencies and background radio signals. A cross-correlation will reveal whether the two signals are derived from the same source. This can also lead to an . . . improvement in the signal detection limit. Either of the two above situations can occur in studying analytical signals. In this study, both auto-and cross-correlation studies were carried out on analytical signals which had discrete noise sources present in their waveforms
Abstract: A new nonglycosidic iridoid, sambulin B (1), was isolated from the methanol extract of Sambucus ebulus L. leaves along with a recently reported new nonglycosidic iridoid, 10-O-acetylpatrinoside aglycone (sambulin A) (2); 2 flavonoids, isorhamnetin-3-O-eta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4); and a mixture of 2 flavonoids (5), quercetin-3-O-eta-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-eta-D-galactopyranoside. Their structures were elucidated by 1-D and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) experiments.
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