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Examining Heuristic-System 1 and Analytic-System 2 processing during reasoning on the syllogisms and the modified version of the bat and ball problems: response time, response confidence, and dual-task assessments

Saban, Sara

Preprint | 2022 | Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System

How are reasoning processes shaped by the heuristic system and analytic system? In the present study, we were focused on how heuristics and analytical thinking affect reasoning. According to dual-process theories, reasoning consists of two distinct modes of processing: System 1 and System 2. System 1 generates responses that are automatic, fast, and intuitive. This system does not need working memory resources. The other system is reflective. Characteristics of this system are deliberative, slow, and conscious. System 2 depends on working memory capacity. Therefore, system 2 needs working memory resources. In the present study, the . . .experimental design was as follows: All participants performed randomly distributed modified version of the bat and ball problems and the syllogistic reasoning problems while they kept memory load in mind and had a time limit in the initial response stage. Then the questions were asked again without memory load and deadline. Both tasks consist of conflict (experiment questions) and no-conflict (control questions) questions. Whereas participants chose among four options in a modified version of the bat and ball problems, they chose between yes and no, considering two premises and a conclusion in the syllogistic reasoning problems. A two-response paradigm was applied. The problems were asked twice. In the first presentation of the problems, we occupied the participant’s working memory with a dual task procedure and time pressure. We replicated the common implication of system 1 with fast response and system 2 with slow thinking Daha fazlası Daha az

Emotion and cognition integration – The effect of anger on working memory

Saban, Sara

Preprint | 2023 | Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System

Emotions have always captured attention of philosophy, psychology and recently neuroscience. Through the history, emotions were considered as separate entity from thinking and cognition. It was mostly related with irrationality. Descartes claimed emotions were part of soul, based on his dualism theory. However, the period started with James-Lange changed this perspective. Together with cognitivist views, it has been understood that emotions have significant influence on cognitive functions. This focus towards relation between emotions and cognition led researchers to pay attention interaction concept. Neuroscience studies took this . . .concept and strengthened with integration theory. It has been shown in many studies that emotions have significant effect on cognitive functions. In this study I have given studies to show how this integration with perception, decision making, memory, attention and working memory studies. Visual working memory and attention were mostly used to show this influence. However, findings of emotion influences on cognitive functions showed inconsistency. We wanted to see how one specific emotion, anger, affect visual working memory with regulated version of Recency-Probe Paradigm. We used memory sets with violent and neutral items and gave a recognition task to participants. Anger is relatively less studied emotion compared to others due to its difficult to measure and induce. We expected that anger-induced participants’ reaction times and accuracy rates should differentiate with participants without induction. Even though there were slightly difference, we found no significant difference between reaction times of control and experimental group. In terms of accuracy also did not show significant difference. However, there was significant difference between reaction times to violent and neutral items inside the groups. We also found that results show inconsistency for emotion effect to cognitive functions Daha fazlası Daha az

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