Prevention and management of ureteral injuries occurring during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: The Heilbronn experience and a review of the literature

Teber, D. | Gözen, A.S. | Cresswell, J. | Canda, A.E. | Yencilek, F. | Rassweiler, J.

Review | 2009 | World Journal of Urology27 ( 5 ) , pp.613 - 618

Objectives: There is a small risk of ureteral injury during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). It is important to recognise and repair such ureteral injuries immediately. Laparoscopic reconstructive surgery has proven to be feasible for the treatment of ureteral injury. We report our experience of ureteral injuries during LRP including the incidence, mechanism of injury, management, prevention and outcome. Materials and methods: During a 9-year period, 2,164 LRP's were performed at our clinic. Three cases were complicated by lower ureteral injuries including two complete and one partial transection. The complete transections . . .occurred during posterior dissection of the bladder neck and seminal vesicles, and the partial transection during an extended lymph node dissection. All were recognised and managed intraoperatively. We performed Lich-Gregoir (LG) extravesical ureteral reimplantation for complete transections, and primary repair for the partial ureteral transection. Results: Overall, the incidence of ureteral injuries was 0.13%. Laparoscopic reconstructive surgery was performed successfully in all cases without complication. This added 71, 46 and 59 min, respectively, to LRP operative time. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Hospital stay was 8 days. After 30, 17 and 14 months of follow-up, intravenous urography (IVU) demonstrated good drainage. Conclusion: Recognition and repair of ureteral injuries during LRP requires a high index of suspicion, and expertise in laparoscopic technique. Laparoscopic reimplantation or primary repair of these injuries during LRP is, in experienced hands, a safe, feasible and minimally invasive procedure with the benefits of laparoscopic surgery maintained for the patient. © Springer-Verlag 2009 Daha fazlası Daha az

Prevention of shockwave induced functional and morphological alterations: An overwiew

Sarica, K. | Yencilek, F.

Review | 2008 | Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia80 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 33

Experimental as well as clinical findings reported in the literature suggest that treatment with shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) causes renal parenchymal damage mainly by generating free radicals through ischaemia /reperfusion injury mechanism. Although SWL-induced renal damage is well tolerated in the majority of healthy cases with no permanent functional and/or morphologic side effects, a subset of patients with certain risk factors requires close attention on this aspect among which the ones with pre-existing renal disorders, urinary tract infection, previous lithotripsy history and solitary kidneys could be mentioned. It is clear t . . .hat in such patients lowering the number of shock waves (per session) could be beneficial and has been applied by the physicians as the first practical step of diminishing SWL induced parenchymal damage. On the other hand, taking the injurious effects of high energy shock wave (HESW) induced free radical formation on renal parenchyma and subsequent histopathologic alterations into account, physicians searched for some protective agents in an attempt to prevent or at least to limit the extent of the functional as well as the morphologic alterations. Among these agents calcium channel blocking agents (verapamil and nifedipine), antioxidant agents (allopurinol, vitamin E and selenium) and potassium citrate have been used to minimize these unestimated adverse effects. Additionally, therapeutic application of these agents on reducing stone recurrence particularly after SWL will gain more importance in the future in order to limit new stone formation in these cases. Lastly, as experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated, combination of anti-oxidants with free radical scavengers may provide superior renal protection against shock wave induced trauma. However, we believe that further investigations are certainly needed to determine the dose-response relationship between the damaging effects of SWL application and the protective role of these agents Daha fazlası Daha az

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