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Clinical course of pediatric urolithiasis: Follow-up data in a long-term basis

Koyuncu, H. | Yencilek, F. | Erturhan, S. | Eryildirım, B. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2011 | International Urology and Nephrology43 ( 1 ) , pp.7 - 13

Objective: To evaluate the natural course of the stone disease in pediatric patients from different perspectives among which the spontaneous passage and stone recurrence rates evaluated during the follow-up. Materials and methods: A total of 142 children referring with primary urinary stone disease were evaluated and followed. All children in the study were divided into two groups with respect to the age (Group 1: 0-5 years and Group 2: 6-15 years). Children were followed with respect to spontaneous passage rates, recurrence-regrowth rates, physical as well as the renal growth rates. Results: Stone recurrence has been noted in 44% o . . .f patients in group 1, this value was 31% in group 2. Children with at least one identifiable metabolic abnormality tended to have higher recurrence rates than the others despite conservative measures. The average stone recurrence rate in children without any metabolic abnormality was 14% and nearly 50% in children with an identifiable metabolic abnormality. Conclusions: We may emphasize that due to the high recurrence and re-growth rates, all children with urinary stone disease should be followed closely with regular visits. The evaluation of metabolic risk factors in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing recurrent stone events and the growth of pre-existing calculi. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, B.V Daha fazlası Daha az

Reply by the Authors

Sarica, K. | Yencilek, F. | Eryildirim, B. | Kuyumcuoglu, U.

Letter | 2009 | Urology74 ( 6 ) , pp.1378 - 1379

[No abstract available]

Role of Overweight Status on Stone-forming Risk Factors in Children: A Prospective Study

Sarica, K. | Eryildirim, B. | Yencilek, F. | Kuyumcuoglu, U.

Article | 2009 | Urology73 ( 5 ) , pp.1003 - 1007

Objectives: To evaluate the possible role of being overweight on stone-forming risk factors in children. Methods: A total of 94 children (43 boys and 51 girls, male/female ratio 1:1.8) who were taking no medication or dietary modifications before treatment were included in the study. After a detailed stone disease history, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were precisely measured and recorded for all patients. The body mass index, 24-hour urine values, and serum stone-forming risk parameters were evaluated in 44 overweight (17 boys and 27 girls; group 1) and 50 normal (26 boys and 24 girls; group 2) children. The results of . . . each group were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: The evaluation of the stone-forming risk factors in both groups revealed that the overweight status might be responsible for the increased excretion of these substances in such children. Most of the children in group 1 demonstrated hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria (9/44, 20.5%) compared with the patients in group 2. Although the mean urinary oxalate level was 0.74 ± 0.81 mg/kg/24 h for boys and 0.69 ± 0.72 mg/kg/24 h for girls in group 1, relatively lower values were noted in group 2 (0.42 ± 0.52 and 0.45 ± 0.57 mg/kg/24 h for the boys and girls, respectively). Similarly, the children in group 1 had elevated mean urinary calcium and lower citrate excretion compared with the group 2 patients. Conclusions: Overweight status in children might be associated with an elevated risk of stone formation in both sexes owing to the alterations in urine composition. Obese children could be more prone to stone formation, and they should be evaluated and followed up for this aspect. Crown Copyright © 2009 Daha fazlası Daha az

Prevention of shockwave induced functional and morphological alterations: An overwiew

Sarica, K. | Yencilek, F.

Review | 2008 | Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia80 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 33

Experimental as well as clinical findings reported in the literature suggest that treatment with shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) causes renal parenchymal damage mainly by generating free radicals through ischaemia /reperfusion injury mechanism. Although SWL-induced renal damage is well tolerated in the majority of healthy cases with no permanent functional and/or morphologic side effects, a subset of patients with certain risk factors requires close attention on this aspect among which the ones with pre-existing renal disorders, urinary tract infection, previous lithotripsy history and solitary kidneys could be mentioned. It is clear t . . .hat in such patients lowering the number of shock waves (per session) could be beneficial and has been applied by the physicians as the first practical step of diminishing SWL induced parenchymal damage. On the other hand, taking the injurious effects of high energy shock wave (HESW) induced free radical formation on renal parenchyma and subsequent histopathologic alterations into account, physicians searched for some protective agents in an attempt to prevent or at least to limit the extent of the functional as well as the morphologic alterations. Among these agents calcium channel blocking agents (verapamil and nifedipine), antioxidant agents (allopurinol, vitamin E and selenium) and potassium citrate have been used to minimize these unestimated adverse effects. Additionally, therapeutic application of these agents on reducing stone recurrence particularly after SWL will gain more importance in the future in order to limit new stone formation in these cases. Lastly, as experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated, combination of anti-oxidants with free radical scavengers may provide superior renal protection against shock wave induced trauma. However, we believe that further investigations are certainly needed to determine the dose-response relationship between the damaging effects of SWL application and the protective role of these agents Daha fazlası Daha az

Family history in stone disease: How important is it for the onset of the disease and the incidence of recurrence?

Koyuncu, H.H. | Yencilek, F. | Eryildirim, B. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2010 | Urological Research38 ( 2 ) , pp.105 - 109

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of a positive family history on the age at the onset of urinary stone disease and the frequency of subsequent symptomatic episodes relating to the disease. Between March 2006 and April 2009, patients with either a newly diagnosed or a previously documented stone disease were included in the study program. They were required to fill in a questionnaire and divided into two groups according to the positive family history of stone disease; group I comprised patients with a family history for urinary calculi and group II those without. Depending on the data obtained from questionn . . .aires, all patients were evaluated in detail with respect to the age at the onset of the stone disease, stone passage and interventions over time, time to first recurrence (time interval between the onset of the disease and the first recurrence), number of total stone episodes and recurrence intervals. 1,595 patients suffering from urolithiasis with the mean age of 41.7 (14-69 years) were evaluated with respect to their past history of the disease. There were 437 patients in group I and 1,158 in group II. There was no statistically significant difierence between the mean age value of two groups (P = 0.09). When both genders in group I were analyzed separately, female patients tended to have higher rate of family history positivity than males. Comparative evaluation of the age at the onset of the disease between the two groups did reveal that stone formation occured at younger ages in patients with positive family history [P = 0.01 (males), P = 0.01 (females)] and the mean age of onset of the disease was lower in males than females in group I (P = 0.01). Patients in group I had relatively more stone episodes from the onset of the disease [P < 0.01 (2-4 episodes), P < 0.01 (?5 episodes)]. Male patients were associated with higher number of stone episodes (P = 0.01). Mean time interval between recurrences was noted to be significantly shorter in group I patients when compared with patients in group II [P < 0.01 (males), P = 0.02 (females)]. In conclusion, our results showed that urinary stone formation may occur at younger ages and that the frequency of symptom episodes may be higher in patients with a positive family history. We believe that the positive family history for urinary stone disease could give us valuable information concerning the onset as well as the severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2009 Daha fazlası Daha az

Does tamsulosin change the management of proximally located ureteral stones?

Yencilek, F. | Erturhan, S. | Canguven, O. | Koyuncu, H. | Erol, B. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2010 | Urological Research38 ( 3 ) , pp.195 - 199

The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent on the spontaneous passage of proximal ureteral calculi ?10 mm. 92 patients having single radio-opaque proximal ureteral stone ?10 mm were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 50) were followed with classical conservative approach and patients in Group 2 (n = 42) additionally received tamsulosin, 0.4 mg/day during 4 weeks follow-up. The stone passage rates, stone expulsion time, VAS score, change in colic episodes, and hospital re-admission rates for colicky pain were compared. The patients were furthermore stratified . . .according to stone diameters Daha fazlası Daha az

The effect of indomethacin on hyperoxaluria-induced renal tubular epithelial injury

Yencilek, F. | Erturhan, S. | Cangüven, Ö. | Erol, B. | Koyuncu, H. | Göktaş, C. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2009 | Turk Uroloji Dergisi35 ( 4 ) , pp.298 - 303

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on apoptosis and crystal deposition developing as a consequence of tubular cell injury induced by hyperoxaluria in an animal model. Materials and methods: Fifty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups. The first 2 groups were fed with hyperoxaluric diet and Group 3 was the control group with no supplementary procedure or treatment. While the animals in Group 1 were given only hyperoxaluric diet, Group 2 animals was applied indomethacin in addition to the hyperoxaluric diet. Animals were sacrificed at the early (7th day) a . . .nd late (28th day) periods and renal tis-sue specimens were sent for the pathological analysis of crystal deposition and apoptosis. Results: The presence and degree of crystal deposition were significantly less in the specimens obtained from indomethacin-treated group during both the early and late periods ( Daha fazlası Daha az

Increased 10-year cardiovascular disease and mortality risk scores in asymptomatic patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

Aydin, H. | Yencilek, F. | Erihan, I.B. | Okan, B. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2011 | Urological Research39 ( 6 ) , pp.451 - 458

Both the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and event rate are increased in patients with urolithiasis. Screening is recommended to all patients who have high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to document 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in asymptomatic patients with urolithiasis. Consecutive 200 patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were compared with 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Ten-year cardiovascular disease risk was calculated with the Framingham Risk Score and mortality risk with SCORE risk score. Calcium, oxalate, and citrate excretion were studied as urinary stone ri . . .sk factors. The results indicate that patients with urolithiasis had higher total cholesterol (p < 0.0001), lower HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and higher systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001) and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. Patients with urolithiasis had a higher Framingham Risk Scores [OR 8.36 (95% CI 3.81-18.65), p = 0.0001] and SCORE risk score [OR 3.02 (95% CI 1.30-7.02), p = 0.0006] compared with controls. The Framingham and SCORE risk score were significantly correlated with urinary calcium (p = 0.0001, r = 0.460, and p = 0.005, r = 0.223, respectively) and oxalate excretion (p = 0.0001, r = 0.516, p = 0.001, r = 0.290, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP and smoking were the independent predictors of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose for 10-year cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis carry high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. All patients should be screened at the initial diagnosis of urolithiasis for the risk factors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Daha fazlası Daha az

The evaluation of saphenofemoral insufficiency in primary adult varicocele

Koyuncu, H. | Ergenoglu, M. | Yencilek, F. | Gulcan, N. | Tasdelen, N. | Yencilek, E. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2011 | Journal of Andrology32 ( 2 ) , pp.151 - 154

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible relationship between varicocele and saphenofemoral insufficiency in patients diagnosed with primary varicocele. A total of 70 patients with the primary diagnosis of varicocele were included into the study. A total of 30 age-matched healthy adults were also included in the study as a control group. Varicocele was diagnosed by palpation and observation of each spermatic cord in standing position before and during a valsalva maneuver. Additionally, scrotal Doppler and lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Patients who were with spermatic varicose vein larger th . . .an 3.0 mm were included in the study group as a varicocele patient. At the lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasonography, a retrograde flow lasting longer than 0.5 seconds during normal breathing or at the valsalva maneuver was considered to be meaningful for saphenofemoral junction insufficiency. Thirty-six (51.35%) patients had insufficiency in saphenofemoral junction in the study group (6 [8.5%] bilateral, 30 [42.85%] unilateral) whereas 8 (26.6%) had insufficiency in the control group (2 [6.6%] bilateral, 6 [20%] unilateral insufficiency). The patients with primary varicocele had a statistically significant (P 5 .02) higher rate of venous insufficiency in their saphenofemoral junctions when compared with the control group. In the present study, the rate of saphenofemoral insufficiency has been found to be statistically higher in patients with primary varicocele compared with healthy men. Depending on the common presence of valvular insufficiency, we believe that the presence of varicocele should be investigated in the young population suffering from saphenofemoral junction insufficiency Daha fazlası Daha az

Emergent stenting after uncomplicated ureteroscopy: Evaluation of 23 patients

Tanriverdi, O. | Yencilek, F. | Koyuncu, H. | Yencilek, E. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2011 | Urology77 ( 2 ) , pp.305 - 308

Objectives To evaluate the causes of emergent stent placement during the postoperative early period after uncomplicated ureteroscopy in 23 patients. Methods Of 276 uncomplicated ureteroscopy procedures performed for the management of ureteral calculi, double-J stent placement was necessary on an emergent basis in 23 patients because of intolerable colic pain and extreme patient discomfort. All stents were inserted within 24 hours after the procedure. Results Of the 23 patients requiring emergent stent placement, 14 were men and 9 were women. The stones had been located in the lower ureter in 11, mid-ureter in 6, and upper ureter in . . .6 patients. All patients had undergone an uncomplicated procedure with no complication evident either during or immediately after ureteroscopic stone management. The intraoperative findings for the 23 patients revealed extensive edema formation, unrecognized small stones embedded in the edematous ureteral wall, unpassed small fragments gathered at the orifice, obstructing blood clots, and kinking of the ureter. A retrospective evaluation of the operative CD recordings and radiographic findings clearly showed that a longer operative time, repeated access, management of a large stone, impacted calculi with ureteral wall edema, a mildly narrowed ureteral segment, ignored caliceal small calculi, and a recent history of urinary tract infection contributed to the need for postoperative intervention. Conclusions Ureteral catheterization, at least in the form of overnight stent placement, might prevent the formation of transient ureteral obstruction, with resultant postoperative patient discomfort and colic pain evident in selected cases. © 2011 Elsevier Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Role of Papaverine Hydrochloride Administration in Patients With Intractable Renal Colic: Randomized Prospective Trial

Yencilek, F. | Aktas, C. | Goktas, C. | Yilmaz, C. | Yilmaz, U. | Sarica, K.

Article | 2008 | Urology72 ( 5 ) , pp.987 - 990

Objectives: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of papaverine hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with renal colic pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. Methods: From March 2007 to January 2008, a total of 561 patients with severe renal colic pain due to a ureteral stone were treated with conventional agents (hyoscine-N-butylbromide and diclofenac sodium) in the emergency and urology departments. Of these 561 patients, 110, with no response to the treatment and persistent severe pain, were randomized into 3 groups for additional treatment. The patients in group 1 (n = 37) received intravenous hyoscine-N-butylbromide, th . . .ose in group 2 (n = 37) received papaverine hydrochloride, and those in group 3 (n = 36) received pethidine. Before and after treatment, all patients completed a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire, with a scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximal complaint), to measure their subjective pain. The mean VAS score of each group was compared with that of the other groups. Results: The pretreatment mean VAS scores of all 3 groups were not significantly different statistically from each other (4.02 ± 1.20, 4.36 ± 1.97, and 4.27 ± 1.50; P > .05). However, after treatment, the mean VAS scores of the patients treated with papaverine (0.93 ± 0.29) and pethidine (0.81 ± 0.38) were significantly different from those of the hycosine group (3.67 ± 2.21; P < .001). However, the mean VAS scores of groups 2 and 3 were comparable (P = .67). Unlike opioids, no papaverine-related severe side effects were observed. Conclusions: Our results indicate that papaverine hydrochloride can used in an effective manner in the management of renal colic pain in patients unresponsive to commonly used conventional agents. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Treatment of ureteral calculi with semirigid ureteroscopy: Where should we stop?

Yencilek, F. | Sarica, K. | Erturhan, S. | Yagci, F. | Erbagci, A.

Article | 2010 | Urologia Internationalis84 ( 3 ) , pp.260 - 264

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of semirigid ureteroscopy in the management of ureteral stones located in different parts of the ureter. Methods: 1,503 patients were treated with semirigid ureteroscopy. All ureteral stones were either removed only by a basket catheter or disintegrated by pneumatic lithotripsy. Success rates, auxiliary procedures, complication rates and operation time were comparatively evaluated according to stone location. Results: Overall, mean stone size and age were 12.1 ± 3.7 mm and 43.2 ± 9.72 years, respectively. While 1,416 patients (94.2%) were completely stone-free, the procedure was unsuccessful in 8 . . .7 cases (5.8%). The success rate was relatively low in the proximal ureter (71.7%) when compared with the mid (94.8%) and distal ureter (98.9%) (p = 0.021). Mean operation time was 25.4 ± 11.7 min. Longer duration of operation and higher complication rate were found in proximal ureteral calculi. Stone migration to the kidney and hematuria were the main reasons of failure in the proximal ureter and ureteral stenting was needed for 56.4% of patients with upper ureteral stone. Conclusions: Semirigid ureteroscopy can be the treatment of choice in lower and midureteral stones. However, it is an invasive and less successful treatment modality for proximal ureteral stones with relatively high complication rates. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel Daha fazlası Daha az

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