Hacioglu, A. | Kelestimur, F. | Tanriverdi, F.
Review | 2019 | Pituitary22 ( 3 ) , pp.322 - 331
Purpose: After traumatic brain injury was accepted as an important etiologic factor of pituitary dysfunction (PD), awareness of risk of developing PD following sports-related traumatic brain injury (SR-TBI) has also increased. However there are not many studies investigating PD following SR-TBIs yet. We aimed to summarize the data reported so far and to discuss screening algorithms and treatment strategies. Methods: Recent data on pituitary dysfunction after SR-TBIs is reviewed on basis of diagnosis, clinical perspectives, therapy, screening and possible prevention strategies. Results: Pituitary dysfunction is reported to occur in a . . . range of 15–46.6% following SR-TBIs depending on the study design. Growth hormone is the most commonly reported pituitary hormone deficiency in athletes. Pituitary hormone deficiencies may occur during acute phase after head trauma, may improve with time or new deficiencies may develop during follow-up. Central adrenal insufficiency is the only and most critical impairment that requires urgent detection and replacement during acute phase. Decision on replacement of growth hormone and gonadal deficiencies should be individualized. Moreover these two hormones are abused by many athletes and a therapeutic use exemption from the league’s drug policy may be required. Conclusions: Even mild and forgotten SR-TBIs may cause PD that may have distressing consequences in some cases if remain undiagnosed. More studies are needed to elucidate epidemiology and pathophysiology of PD after SR-TBIs. Also studies to establish screening algorithms for PD as well as strategies for prevention of SR-TBIs are urgently required. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
Temizkan, S. | Kelestimur, F.
Review | 2019 | Pituitary22 ( 3 ) , pp.220 - 228
Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the data underlying the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction. Methods: Recent literature about the pathophysiology of TBI-induced hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction reviewed. Results: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide epidemic that frequently leads to death; TBI survivors tend to sustain cognitive, behavioral, psychological, social, and physical disabilities in the long term. The most common causes of TBI include road accidents, falls, assaults, sports, work and war injuries. From an endocrinological perspective, TBIs are important, because they can cause pi . . .tuitary dysfunction. Although TBI-induced pituitary dysfunction was first reported a century ago, most of the studies that evaluate this disorder were published after 2000. TBI due to sports and blast injury-related pituitary dysfunction is generally underreported, due to limited recognition of the cases. Conclusion: The underlying pathophysiology responsible for post-TBI pituitary dysfunction is not clear. The main proposed mechanisms are vascular injury, direct traumatic injury to the pituitary gland, genetic susceptibility, autoimmunity, and transient medication effects. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature