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Most-favored-nation clauses in commercial contracts: legal and economic analysis and proposal for a guideline

Gürkaynak, G. | Güner, A. | Diniz, S. | Filson, J.

Article | 2016 | European Journal of Law and Economics42 ( 1 ) , pp.129 - 155

The prevalent use of “most favored nation” (MFN) clauses in commercial agreements has garnered significant attention in the economics and legal literature and by practitioners and enforcement agencies. From an antitrust standpoint, there is a strong consensus that while MFN provisions can lead to procompetitive outcomes or at least play a competitively neutral role, they may also result in competitive harm and a loss of consumer welfare. Therefore, US and EU enforcement agencies and courts have held that MFNs should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, considering the specific characteristics of both the contractual provision and th . . .e industry. While a case-by-case approach is valid, it is not ideal from a variety of standpoints: that of the competition authorities seeking to make best use of their limited resources and that of practitioners seeking to advise their clients. Accordingly, published guidelines on the use of MFNs, containing presumptions and safe harbors, would be both efficient and useful. The paper argues that it would increase the efficiency and accuracy of antitrust enforcement if one of the leading competition authorities issued MFN guidelines. The paper suggests a set of presumptions and safe harbors that should be included in any such guidelines. © 2015, The Author(s) Daha fazlası Daha az

Enterobacter Strains Might Promote Colon Cancer

Yurdakul, D. | Yazgan-Karataş, A. | Şahin, Fikrettin

Article | 2015 | Current Microbiology71 ( 3 ) , pp.403 - 411

Many studies have been performed to determine the interaction between bacterial species and cancer. However, there has been no attempts to demonstrate a possible relationship between Enterobacter spp. and colon cancer so far. Therefore, in the present study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of Enterobacter strains on colon cancer. Bacterial proteins were isolated from 11 Enterobacter spp., one Morganella morganii, and one Escherichia coli strains, and applied onto NCM460 (Incell) and CRL1790 (ATCC) cell lines. Cell viability and proliferation were determined in MTS assay. Flow Cytometry was used to detect CD24 level and apopto . . .sis. Real-Time PCR studies were performed to determine NFKB and Bcl2 expression. Graphpad Software was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that proteins, isolated from the Enterobacter spp., have significantly increased cell viability and proliferation, while decreasing the apoptosis of the cell lines tested. The data in the present study indicated that Enterobacter strains might promote colon cancer. Moreover, Enterobacter spp. could be a clinically important factor for colon cancer initiation and progression. Studies can be extended on animal models in order to develop new strategies for treatment. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York Daha fazlası Daha az

Boron promotes streptozotocin-induced diabetic wound healing: roles in cell proliferation and migration, growth factor expression, and inflammation

Demirci, S. | Doğan, A. | Aydın, S. | Dülger, E.Ç. | Şahin, Fikrettin

Article | 2016 | Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry417 ( 01.02.2020 ) , pp.119 - 133

Acute wounds do not generally require professional treatment modalities and heal in a predictable fashion, but chronic wounds are mainly accompanied with infection and prolonged inflammation, leading to healing impairments and continuous tissue degradation. Although a vast amount of products have been introduced in the market, claiming to provide a better optimization of local and systemic conditions of patients, they do not meet the expectations due to being expensive and not easily accessible, requiring wound care facilities, having patient-specific response, low efficiency, and severe side-effects. In this sense, developing new, . . .safe, self-applicable, effective, and cheap wound care products with broad-range antimicrobial activity is still an attractive area of international research. In the present work, boron derivatives [boric acid and sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (NaB)] were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, proliferation, migratory, angiogenesis, gene, and growth factor expression promoting effects on dermal cells in vitro. In addition, boron-containing hydrogel formulation was examined for its wound healing promoting potential using full-thickness wound model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The results revealed that while both boron compounds significantly increased proliferation, migration, vital growth factor, and gene expression levels of dermal cells along with displaying remarkable antimicrobial effects against bacteria, yeast, and fungi, NaB displayed greater antimicrobial properties as well as gene and growth factor expression inductive effects. Animal studies proved that NaB-containing gel formulation enhanced wound healing rate of diabetic animals and histopathological scores. Overall data suggest a potential promising therapeutic option for the management of chronic wounds but further studies are highly warranted to determine signaling pathways and target metabolisms in which boron is involved to elucidate the limitations and extend its use in clinics. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York Daha fazlası Daha az

Memory Partitioning in the Limit

Kültürsay, E. | Ebcioğlu, K. | Küçük, G. | Kandemir, M.T.

Article | 2016 | International Journal of Parallel Programming44 ( 2 ) , pp.337 - 380

The key difficulties in designing memory hierarchies for future computing systems with extreme scale parallelism include (1) overcoming the design complexity of system-wide memory coherence, (2) achieving low power, and (3) achieving fast access times within such a memory hierarchy. Towards addressing these difficulties, in this paper we propose an automatic memory partitioning method to generate a customized, application-specific, energy-efficient, low latency memory hierarchy, tailored to particular application programs. Given a software program to accelerate, our method automatically partitions the memory of the original program, . . . creates a new customized application-specific multi-level memory hierarchy for the program, and modifies the original program to use the new memory hierarchy. This new memory hierarchy and modified program are then used as the basis to create a customized, application-specific, highly parallel hardware accelerator, which is functionally equivalent to the original, unmodified program. Using dependence analysis and fine grain valid/dirty bits, the memories in the generated hierarchy can operate in parallel without the need for maintaining coherence and can be independently initialized/flushed from/to their parent memories in the hierarchy, enabling a scalable memory design. The generated memories are fully compatible with the memory addressing in the original software program; this compatibility feature enables the translation of general software applications to application-specific accelerators. We also provide a compiler analysis method to perform accurate dependence analysis for memory partitioning based on symbolic execution, and a profiler-based futuristic limit study to identify the maximum gains that can be achieved by memory partitioning. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York Daha fazlası Daha az

Pituitary pathology in traumatic brain injury: a review

Sav, A. | Rotondo, F. | Syro, L.V. | Serna, C.A. | Kovacs, K.

Review | 2019 | Pituitary , pp.337 - 380

Purpose: Traumatic brain injury most commonly affects young adults under the age of 35 and frequently results in reduced quality of life, disability, and death. In long-term survivors, hypopituitarism is a common complication. Results: Pituitary dysfunction occurs in approximately 20–40% of patients diagnosed with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury giving rise to growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, and central diabetes insipidus. Varying degrees of hypopituitarism have been identified in patients during both the acute and chronic phase. Anterior pituitary hormone deficiency has been show . . .n to cause morbidity and increase mortality in TBI patients, already encumbered by other complications. Hypopituitarism after childhood traumatic brain injury may cause treatable morbidity in those survivors. Prospective studies indicate that the incidence rate of hypopituitarism may be ten-fold higher than assumed; factors altering reports include case definition, geographic location, variable hospital coding, and lost notes. While the precise pathophysiology of post traumatic hypopituitarism has not yet been elucidated, it has been hypothesized that, apart from the primary mechanical event, secondary insults such as hypotension, hypoxia, increased intracranial pressure, as well as changes in cerebral flow and metabolism may contribute to hypothalamic-pituitary damage. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to clarify the causes of primary mechanical events giving rise to ischemic adenohypophysial infarction and the ensuing development of hypopituitarism. Conclusion: Future research should focus more on experimental and clinical studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms behind post-traumatic pituitary damage. The use of preventive medical measures to limit possible damage in the pituitary gland and hypothalamic pituitary axis in order to maintain or re-establish near normal physiologic functions are crucial to minimize the effects of TBI. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature Daha fazlası Daha az

WiSEGATE: Wireless Sensor Network Gateway framework for internet of things

Serdaroglu, K.C. | Baydere, S.

Article | 2016 | Wireless Networks22 ( 5 ) , pp.1475 - 1491

With internet of things vision, computing systems get the ubiquity of real world. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology plays a critical role for the construction of this paradigm. Hence, WSN technology should be adapted to support interoperability with the commodity internet entities. Since technological background of WSN and IP networks do not fit each other, this effort is not a straightforward process. In this paper, we introduce WiSEGATE which addresses end-to-end reliable interconnection problem between multiple internet entities and sensor nodes. WiSEGATE is a prototype of a new web server which supports three tier service . . . scheme with a data acquisition mechanism of WSN to access the physical data in particular locations in the real world. In WiSEGATE, an interconnection gateway handles operations required for the interoperability. Since this gateway maintains reliable TCP/IP connections of the interconnected entities, the resource constraint sensor nodes on WSN do not require a TCP/IP stack for handling end-to-end connections. A lightweight service layer is implemented on a sensor node for operations required by the interconnection. The strength and novelty of the model lies in the fact that this lightweight service layer relieves extra memory usage for end-to-end connection management. For determining limits of the proposed model, firstly, we examined the steps for request/response mechanism and modeled the gateway as a queueing system. By doing this, we derive a definition of the request traffic. For proof of concept, we performed comprehensive tests in simulation and real testbed environments for WLAN connection. WiSEGATE can achieve reasonable response times up to 80 simultaneous connections from remote entities to WSN when WLAN PER is less than 0.2. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York Daha fazlası Daha az

Development of a system for temperature profile characterization of baths

Torun, M.K. | İnce, A.T.

Article | 2011 | International Journal of Thermophysics32 ( 11.12.2020 ) , pp.2370 - 2378

Liquid baths are the main calibration equipment to directly affect the measurement uncertainty in temperature calibrations. Therefore, the characteristics of baths need to be well investigated and understood. The temperature profile and stability of liquid baths are one of the most important contributions to the calibration uncertainty of platinum resistance thermometers, digital thermometers, liquid-in-glass thermometers, and thermocouples. Commercial baths only present stability and uniformity data in two dimensions in general; however, thermometers and thermocouples are immersed into the body of the bath, so the depth or z-axis i . . .s also very important. In this study, a measurement system has been designed using three-stepper motors and a data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS is developed using object-oriented algorithms to form a three-dimensional (3-D) scanning system. The 3-D scanning system is home-made and used in conjunction with a reference platinum thermometer. The temperature profiles and stability of several types of baths: water, oil, and salt were obtained in the temperature range from 30°C to 450°C. Therefore, this contributed toward a more accurate uncertainty budget evaluation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Daha fazlası Daha az

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