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Evaluation of Surface Roughness Characteristics Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Inspection of Microhardness Following Resin Infiltration with Icon®

E.B. Gurdogan | D. Ozdemir-Ozenen | N. Sandalli

Article | 2017 | Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry29 ( 3 ) , pp.201 - 208

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness via atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as to evaluate the microhardness values of Icon® in comparison with sound and demineralized enamel in a large subject group. Materials and Methods: Enamel samples were prepared from sound bovine incisors and randomly allocated into either AFM (n = 60) or microhardness (n = 60) groups. The AFM group was divided into control (n = 30) and Icon® (n = 30) subgroups. The microhardness group was also divided into three subgroups: control (n = 20), demineralization (n = 20) and Icon® (n = 20) groups. The demineralization and Icon . . .® subgroups were subjected to a demineralizing solution (pH: 4, 2 hours). Following the formation of shallow white spot lesions and application of the infiltrant, each sample was examined according to its parameter. Results: AFM images suggested that Icon® had a significantly rougher surface than the control group. When the AFM results were evaluated numerically, it was evident that the Icon® group possessed statistically higher Sa, Sq, mean height, and maximum deviation values compared to the control group. The mean Vickers hardness values of all groups were determined to be significantly different from one another. Hardness values in the demineralization group were determined to be significantly lower than the control and Icon® groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between mean Vickers hardness values for the contol and Icon® groups. Conclusions: The present in vitro study shows that more studies are required to improve the surface quality of this infiltrant material. Clinical Significance: The present in vitro study shows that the resin infiltration technique results in increased microhardness of demineralized enamel. However, it was observed that the infiltrant material creates a significantly rougher surface compared to healthy, untreated enamel. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:201–208, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Comparison of tramadol versus tramadol with paracetamol for efficacy of postoperative pain management in lumbar discectomy: A randomised controlled study

N. Uztüre | H. Türe | Ö. Keskin | B. Atalay | Ö. Köner

Article | 2020 | International Journal of Clinical Practice74 ( 1 ) , pp.201 - 208

Purpose: Despite developments in the treatment of pain, the availability of new drugs or increased knowledge of pain management, postoperative pain control after different surgeries remains inadequate. We aimed to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of tramadol versus tramadol with paracetamol after lumbar discectomy. Design, Setting, Participants: Sixty patients undergoing lumbar discectomy were randomly assigned into two groups. Methods: Patients in Group T (n = 30) received tramadol (1 mg/kg), and patients in Group TP (n = 30) received tramadol (1 mg/kg) with paracetamol (1 g) 30 minutes before the end of surgery and par . . .acetamol was continued during the postoperative period at 6 hours intervals for the first 24 hours. Patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol was used during the postoperative period. Main Outcome Measures: Duration, postoperative pain scores, Ramsay sedation scores, analgesic consumption, and side effects were recorded in all patients during the postoperative period. Continuous random variables were tested for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, than Student's t-test was used for means comparisons between groups. For discrete random variables chi-square tests and McNemar test was used. Results: Demographic data, mean duration of anaesthesia and surgery were similar in both groups. Postoperative pain scores were significantly higher in Group T than Group TP at 5; 15; 20; and 30 minutes (P =.021, P =.004, P =.002, P =.018). Late postoperative pain scores were similar. Total tramadol consumption in Group T (106.12 ± 4.84 mg) was higher than Group TP (81.20 ± 2.53) during the 24 hours postoperative period. However, continuing the paracetamol at 6 hours interval did not change late postoperative pain scores. Conclusion: The administration of tramadol with paracetamol was more effective than tramadol alone for early acute postoperative pain therapy following lumbar discectomy. Therefore, while adding paracetamol in early pain management is recommended, continuing paracetamol for the late postoperative period is not advised. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Carnosine prevents testicular oxidative stress and advanced glycation end product formation in D-galactose-induced aged rats

Aydın, A.F. | Küçükgergin, C. | Çoban, J. | Doğan-Ekici, I. | Doğru-Abbasoğlu, S. | Uysal, M. | Koçak-Toker, N.

Article | 2018 | Andrologia50 ( 3 ) , pp.201 - 208

D-Galactose is shown to mimic natural ageing in rodents by exacerbating oxidative stress and glycation. Steroid production and having a poor antioxidant system make testis vulnerable to galactose-induced ageing. Antioxidation and antiglycating actions of carnosine may be intriguing for prevention of testicular ageing. In this study, male Wistar rats were applied D-galactose (300 mg/kg; subcutaneously 5 days a week) and carnosine (250 mg/kg; intraperitoneally 5 days a week) along with D-galactose for 2 months. D-Galactose treatment increased testicular reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, diene conjugates . . ., protein carbonyls, advanced oxidation products of proteins and advanced glycation end products. Carnosine was capable of repelling oxidative stress and glycation produced by D-galactose. Johnsen's score, which describes histopathological evaluation, was also significantly improved with preserved spermatogenesis by carnosine. It appears that carnosine deters the testicular oxidative stress due to galactose-induced ageing directly by its antioxidative and antiglycating properties. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag Gmb Daha fazlası Daha az

Agmatine Reverses Sub-chronic Stress induced Nod-like Receptor Protein 3 (NLRP3) Activation and Cytokine Response in Rats

Sahin, C. | Albayrak, O. | Akdeniz, T.F. | Akbulut, Z. | Yanikkaya Demirel, G. | Aricioglu, F.

Article | 2016 | Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology119 ( 4 ) , pp.367 - 375

The activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) has lately been implicated in stress and depression as an initiator mechanism required for the production of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine widely distributed in mammalian brain, is a novel neurotransmitter/neuromodulator, with antistress, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenously administered agmatine on NLRP3 inflammasome pathway/cytokine responses in rats exposed to restraint stress for 7 days. The rats were divided into three groups: stress, stress+agmatine (40 mg/kg; i.p.) and control gr . . .oups. Agmatine significantly down-regulated the gene expressions of all stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, NF-?B, PYCARD, caspase-1, IL-1ß and IL-18) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels not only in both brain regions, but also in serum. Stress-reduced levels of IL-4 and IL-10, two major anti-inflammatory cytokines, were restored back to normal by agmatine treatment in the PFC. The findings of the present study suggest that stress-activated NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokine responses are reversed by an acute administration of agmatine. Whether antidepressant-like effect of agmatine can somehow, at least partially, be mediated by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome cascade and relevant inflammatory responses requires further studies in animal models of depression. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society Daha fazlası Daha az

Two-year performance of CAD/CAM fabricated resin composite inlay restorations: A randomized controlled clinical trial

A.T. Tunac | E.U. Celik | B. Yasa

Article | 2019 | Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry31 ( 6 ) , pp.627 - 638

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2-year clinical performance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) resin composite inlay restorations in comparison with direct resin composite restorations. Materials and methods: In 44 patients, 120 class II (mesio-occlusal/disto-occlusal) cavities were randomly assigned into two groups; CAD/CAM resin composite inlay group (Lava Ultimate), direct resin composite group (Clearfil Majesty Posterior). Clinical evaluations were performed after 1 week, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years according to the FDI criteria. The data were analyzed using Friedman's ANOVA an . . .d Mann-Whitney U tests (? =.05). Results: In 41 patients, 114 restorations were evaluated at the second year (recall rate 93.2%). All restorations were ideal or clinically acceptable. At the first year, considering all criteria, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. However, there was a significant difference in terms of surface luster at second year, in favor of inlay restorations (P =.015). The marginal staining of resin composites increased after 2 years (P =.046), but there was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Except the surface luster, 2-year clinical performance of CAD/CAM resin composite inlay restorations was found similar to direct resin composite restorations according to FDI criteria. Clinical Significance: The clinical performance of CAD/CAM resin composite inlays was acceptable in class II cavities subsequent to 2-year evaluation. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Marginal Bone Changes around Platform-Switching Implants Placed in Crestal or Subcrestal Positions: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

E. Kütan | N. Bolukbasi | E. Yildirim-Ondur | T. Ozdemir

Article | 2015 | Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research17 , pp.627 - 638

Background: It has been reported in many articles that marginal bone resorptions are prevented by platform-switching design. However, what occurs when these implants are placed in the apical position is not completely known. Purpose: This report describes a randomized controlled clinical trial study that aims to test the hypothesis that less resorption will occur when platform-switching implants are placed 1mm below bone level. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 randomly selected implants were inserted bilaterally, either 1mm below bone level (test group, 28 implants) or at bone level (control group, 28 implants) of the patients' . . .posterior regions. Marginal bone resorptions were examined through periapical radiographies taken with the parallel technique at the time of crown cementation and the third, sixth, 12th, and 36th months after prosthetic loading. The modified plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and probing depths were used for follow-up periodontal care of the implants. Results: After 3 years, the mean radiographic vertical bone loss in the control group was significantly lower than in the test group (0.56±0.35mm and 1.21±1.05mm, respectively) (p.05). No peri-implantitis or peri-implant mucositis was observed around the test or control implants. Conclusions: More marginal bone resorptions occurred after the third year of loading in implants placed 1mm below bone level. However, the resorptions did not reach the implants thread. In the control group, the first bone implant contact was placed under the level of the first threads. Therefore, the present randomized clinical trial confirmed the hypothesis that placing platform-switching implants 1mm below bone level reduced marginal bone loss. It can be noted that to reduce resorption, platform-switching implants should be placed below bone level. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc Daha fazlası Daha az

Regulation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species

Fazli, M. | Almblad, H. | Rybtke, M.L. | Givskov, M. | Eberl, L. | Tolker-Nielsen, T.

Review | 2014 | Environmental Microbiology16 ( 7 ) , pp.1961 - 1981

In the present review, we describe and compare the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida,Pseudomonas fluorescens,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Our current knowledge suggests that biofilm formation is regulated by cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP), small RNAs (sRNA) and quorum sensing (QS) in all these bacterial species. The systems that employ c-di-GMP as a second messenger regulate the production of exopolysaccharides and surface proteins which function as extracellular matrix components in the biofilms formed by the bacteria. The syst . . .ems that make use of sRNAs appear to regulate the production of exopolysaccharide biofilm matrix material in all these species. In the pseudomonads, QS regulates the production of extracellular DNA, lectins and biosurfactants which all play a role in biofilm formation. In B.cenocepaciaQS regulates the expression of a large surface protein, lectins and extracellular DNA that all function as biofilm matrix components. Although the three regulatory systems all regulate the production of factors used for biofilm formation, the molecular mechanisms involved in transducing the signals into expression of the biofilm matrix components differ between the species. Under the conditions tested, exopolysaccharides appears to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.aeruginosa, whereas large surface proteins appear to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.putida,P.fluorescens, and B.cenocepacia. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

How Has the Behavior of Cross-Market Correlations Altered During Financial and Debt Crises?

Demiralay, S. | Ulusoy, V.

Article | 2017 | Manchester School85 ( 6 ) , pp.765 - 794

In this paper, we analyze the time-varying behavior of cross-market correlations between emerging and developed markets. For this, we conduct the Asymmetric Dynamic Conditional Correlation -EGARCH model, which captures asymmetries both in the conditional variances and correlations. Our main results suggest the upward patterns of correlations, reflecting the increased equity market integration over time, and also provide that asymmetric behavior in the correlations is not as common as in the volatilities. We further analyze time-paths of the correlations during the two latest crises; namely global financial crisis (GFC) and European . . .Sovereign Debt Crisis to investigate whether the crises induce contagion effects and significant structural shifts. The empirical findings reveal that the correlation levels significantly increase and the emerging markets recouple in the latest two turmoil episodes, providing evidence of contagion incidences. Moreover, we examine whether the dynamic correlations possess abrupt changes in times of the crisis via multiple structural breakpoint tests and demonstrate that substantial regime shifts in the conditional correlations are present during both the GFC and the ESDC. Our results provide insights and have potential implications for global investors to optimize their portfolios as well as for authorities to handle contagion risk and prevent its adverse impacts. © 2016 The University of Manchester and John Wiley & Sons Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma

Yaba, A. | Bozkurt, E.R. | Demir, N.

Article | 2016 | Andrologia48 ( 6 ) , pp.702 - 707

The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral class . . .ic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag Gmb Daha fazlası Daha az

Pharmacotherapeutic agents used in temporomandibular disorders

B. Bal Kucuk | S. Tolunay Kaya | P. Karagoz Motro | K. Oral

Review | 2014 | Oral Diseases20 ( 8 ) , pp.740 - 743

Depending on the source and character, pharmacotherapy is one of the most commonly used methods to treat temporomandibular disorders in addition to the use of appliances, physiotherapy, behavioral therapy, and surgical interventions. To decide on the appropriate treatment approach for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders, pharmacotherapeutics should be understood in great detail. As for other pain treatments, pharmacotherapy can be used as a monotherapy or combined with other treatment options in temporomandibular disorders. The aim of the present review is to overview the primary analgesics and myorelaxants used in temporom . . .andibular disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Daha fazlası Daha az

Micro-CT evaluation of the quality of root fillings when using three root filling systems

Başer Can, E.D. | Keleş, A. | Aslan, B.

Article | 2017 | International Endodontic Journal50 ( 5 ) , pp.499 - 505

Aim: To evaluate the percentage volumes of filling materials and voids in single-rooted teeth filled with three different filling systems using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methodology: Thirty single-rooted human teeth were used. After preparation of the root canals, the teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). The canals were filled with EndoREZ, ActiV GP or AH Plus/gutta-percha. Each specimen was scanned using a micro-CT device at a resolution of 13.68 µm. Percentage volumes of root filling materials and voids were calculated and data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test and the Mann–Wh . . .itney U-test with Bonferroni adjustment. Within each group, the Friedman test was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to detect discrepancies. Results: The percentage volume of filling material was significantly lower in the ActiV GP group than in the other groups (P Daha fazlası Daha az

Evidence for Financial Contagion in Endogenous Volatile Periods

Kilic, E. | Ulusoy, V.

Article | 2015 | Review of Development Economics19 ( 1 ) , pp.62 - 74

The objective of this study is to analyze cross-border contagious dynamics in both foreign exchange markets and stock exchange markets. Propagation is analyzed with respect to the transmission of excessive volatility that is endogenously determined. The contagion process is discussed in the context of financial systems, foreign direct investments and trade. Implementing a vector autoregressive-multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (VAR-MGARCH) model, we show that country-specific turbulence in financial markets is able to create unanticipated financial contagion across countries. Diversified trade an . . .d financial relations decrease the risk of exposure to contagion from external markets. The world's largest economies, however, play a price-setter role, and diversification is of secondary importance. Asymmetric transmission of the empirically predicted contagion prevails in the latter case. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

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