A novel wound healing ointment: A formulation of Hypericum perforatum oil and sage and oregano essential oils based on traditional Turkish knowledge

Süntar, I. | Akkol, E.K. | Keleş, H. | Oktem, A. | Başer, K.H.C. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2011 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology134 ( 1 ) , pp.89 - 96

Aim of the study: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), olive oil (Oleaceae), Origanum Tourn ex L. and Salvia L. species (Lamiaceae) are used against inflammatory disorders and for healing of skin wounds in traditional Turkish medicine. A new ointment formulation was developed to provide more efficient wound healing activity. The content of the formulation was as follows; olive oil extract of flowering aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L., olive oil, an equivalent mixture of Origanum majorana L. and Origanum minutiflorum Schwrd. et Davis essential oils (Origani aetheroleum), Salvia triloba L. essential oil. The aim of the prese . . .nt study is to assess the wound healing potential of this new formulation by using in vivo and in vitro models as well as histopathological methods. Materials and methods: For the evaluation of wound healing potential of this formulation (HPP crème mit Rotöl ointment) in vivo wound healing experimental models were employed on rats and mice and the efficiency was comparatively assessed against a reference ointment Madecassol®. Tissue sections were also evaluated histopathologically. Furthermore, the wound healing activity of each component was also investigated individually to determine the improvement in the healing capacity of the formulation. Results: The ointments of HPP crème mit Rotöl and Hypericum perforatum L. demonstrated the highest activities on both wound models when compared to reference ointment Madecassol®, while the other ingredients did not show any remarkable wound healing effect. However, the efficacy of the formulation was remarkably higher than the Hypericum L. ointment alone which was also confirmed by histopathological evaluation. On the other hand, the formulation did not reduce elastase activity in vitro, but inhibited the collagenase activity. HPP crème mit Rotöl also exerted bactericidal and candicidal activities. Conclusions: The experimental studies revealed that HPP crème mit Rotöl formulation displays remarkable wound healing activity. To be acting on the different stages of wound healing process could be considered as a beneficial effect of the formulation for the treatment of wounds. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Bioactivity guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Arceuthobium oxycedri (D.C.) M. Bieb.

Akkol, E.K. | Orhan, I. | Kartal, M. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2010 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology128 ( 1 ) , pp.79 - 84

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Arceuthobium oxycedri (D.C.) M. Bieb. (Loranthaceae) or dwarf mistletoe is a rare semi-parasitic plant that lives on the branches of Juniperus oxycedrus as the host plant. In Turkish folk medicine, the plant is prescribed as a panacea for every kind of diseases, including, against infectious and inflammatory disorders of upper respiratory system and gastro-intestinal complaints or as a hypotensive remedy. Aim of the study: In the current study, in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Arceuthobium oxycedri have been investigated. Material and methods: The crude ethanolic extract of the . . . whole plant was sequentially fractionated into five subextracts; explicitly, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and remaining water extracts. Further studies were carried out on the most active subextract, i.e. the EtOAc subextract, was further subjected to fractionation through successive column chromatographic applications on Silica gel 60, Sephadex LH-20 and LiChropep RP-18. For the activity assessment, each extract or fraction was submitted to bioassay systems; carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model for anti-inflammatory activity and p-benzoquinone induced abdominal contraction test for antinociceptive activity assessment. Results: Among the extracts obtained, the ethanolic extract, EtOAc and n-butanol subextracts showed significant inhibitory activity in the bioassay systems. From the EtOAc subextract, a major component was isolated and its structure was determined as (+)-catechin by means of spectral techniques. Conclusion: Present study confirms the claimed utilization of the plant against inflammatory complaints in Turkish folk medicine. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Valuation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Erica species native to Turkey

Akkol, E.K. | Yeşilada, E. | Güvenç, A.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology116 ( 2 ) , pp.251 - 257

Erica L. species (Ericaceae) have been popularly used as antirheumatic, diuretic, astringent and treatment of urinary infections. In order to evaluate this information, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of different extracts prepared with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water from the aerial parts of Erica arborea L., Erica manipuliflora Salisb., Erica bocquetii (Peşmen) P.F. Stevens and Erica sicula Guss. subsp. libanotica (C.&W. Barbey) P.F. Stevens (Ericaceae) of Turkish origin were investigated by using in vivo methods. For the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema m . . .odel, PGE2-induced hind paw edema model, and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model and for the antinociceptive activity p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test in mice were employed. The ethyl acetate extracts of Erica arborea (EAE), Erica bocquetii (EBE) and Erica manipuliflora (EME) exhibited notable inhibition against carrageenan-induced (24.1-32.3%, 23.8-36.1%, 29.2-35.1%, respectively) and PGE2-induced (21.2-37.7%, 6.8-29.7%, and 6.2-34.1%, respectively) hind paw edema as well as TPA-induced mouse ear edema models in mice, while the ethyl acetate extract of Erica sicula subsp. libanotica (ESE) (10.7-29.7%) displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity only on the PGE2-induced hind paw edema model. However, the remaining extracts were found to be inactive against inflammatory models. Same extracts, i.e., EAE, EBE and EME were also found to exhibit remarkable antinociceptive activity in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test at a dose of 100 mg/kg (46.5%, 27.7% and 36.3%, respectively). © 2007 Daha fazlası Daha az

Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration

Küçükkurt, I. | Ince, S. | Keleş, H. | Küpeli Akkol, E. | Avci, G. | Yeşilada, E. | Bacak, E.

Article | 2010 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology129 ( 1 ) , pp.18 - 22

Aim of the study: Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. In Turkish folk medicine, tea prepared from the crushed seeds was used to pass kidney stone and against stomach ache, while a fraction of seed was swallowed to alleviate hemorroids symptoms.In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of escin mixture from Aesculus hippocastanum seed on the blood and tissue antioxidant defense systems in standard pellet diet (SPD) and in high-fat diet (HFD) consumed male mice. Materials and methods: Escin mixture was obtained from the ethanol extract of seeds. Es . . .cin mixture was administered orally to male mice fed either standard pellet diet (SPD) or high-fat diet (HFD) at 100. mg/kg doses daily for 5 weeks and the tissue (liver, kidney and heart) and blood samples were collected at the end of experimental period. The effect of escin mixture on the plasma antioxidant activity; blood and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; erythrocyte and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) in SPD and HFD consumed animals were experimentally studied. Results: Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Combined administration of high-fat diet with escin mixture decreased blood ( Daha fazlası Daha az

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of some Onosma L. species growing in Turkey

Tosun, A. | Akkol, E.K. | Bahadir, O. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology120 ( 3 ) , pp.378 - 381

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Roots of Onosma species are used for the treatment of various disorders such as bronchitis, tonsillitis, hemorrhoids as well as alleviating pains in folk medicine in Turkey. Aim of the study: The chloroform and ethanol (70%) extracts obtained from the roots of Onosma species (Boraginaceae) growing in Turkey, Onosma aucheranum DC., Onosma isauricum Boiss. and Heldr. (endemic), Onosma sericeum Willd., Onosma tauricum Pallas ex Willd. var. brevifolium DC. (endemic) and Onosma tauricum Pallas ex Willd. var. tauricum (Syn: Onosma velenovskyi Davidov) were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinoc . . .iceptive activities. Materials and methods: For the preliminary screening, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema for the anti-inflammatory activity and, p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test for the antinociceptive activity were used in mice. Results: The chloroform extracts from Onosma aucheranum and Onosma isauricum and ethanolic extracts from Onosma isauricum and Onosma sericeum demonstrated 28.0%, 34.3%, 24.6% and, 27.5% inhibition in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test. The chloroform and ethanol (70%) extracts of Onosma isauricum and ethanol (70%) extract of Onosma sericeum also exhibited marked inhibition, ranging between 12.3-27.3%, 10.5-25.3%, 8.2-22.6%, respectively, in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model at 100 mg/kg dose without gastric damage and the activity was quite comparable to indomethacin (32.0-38.4% inhibition) as a reference sample. Neither death nor gastric bleeding was observed for any of the plant extracts during the acute toxicity evaluation. Conclusion: The experimental data demonstrated that Onosma aucheranum, Onosma isauricum and Onosma sericeum displayed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. © 2008 Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of in vivo antioxidant enzyme activities of myrtle oil in normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic rabbits

Sepici-Dincel, A. | Açikgöz, S. | Çevik, C. | Sengelen, M. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2007 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology110 ( 3 ) , pp.498 - 503

In this study we aimed to evaluate the in vivo effects of myrtle oil (myrtii oleum) on the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, the levels of malondialdehyde in liver tissues as an index of lipid peroxidation and nitrite-nitrate levels in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic and MO-treated rabbits. In our previous study, we assumed that MO with a dose of 50 mg/kg, possesses a hypoglycemic activity and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. Myrtle oil exerts its hypoglycemic activity by enhanced glycolysis, glycogenesis and decreased glycogenolysis. What is more glucose load data s . . .trongly suggest that MO treatment produces hypoglycemia mainly by reducing intestinal absorption of glucose, so MO could be an ?-glycosidase enzyme inhibitor which had a hypoglycaemic effect only on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits on the fourth hour and on orally glucose loaded group. The major finding of this new study is that, MO may not offer any protection against oxidative stress during acute studies in normoglycemic and diabetic groups. Although the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities did not change during acute studies in diabetes + MO group, there was a significant change at the end of 21 days. There is a very limited knowledge about MO and its effects on diabetes. Therefore, we tried to explain the mechanism that might underlie the protective effects of MO with this paper. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Safety evaluation of styrax liquidus from the viewpoint of genotoxicity and mutagenicity

Charehsaz, M. | Reis, R. | Helvacioglu, S. | Sipahi, H. | Guzelmeric, E. | Acar, E.T. | Aydin, A.

Article | 2016 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology194 , pp.506 - 512

Ethnopharmacological relevance Styrax liquidus is a resinous exudate (balsam) obtained from the wounded trunk of the Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (Hamamelidaceae). Styrax has been used for treatment of various ailments in Turkish folk medicine such as skin problems, peptic ulcers, nocturnal enuresis, parasitic infections, antiseptic or as expectorant. Aim of study In spite of frequent use of styrax in Turkish folk medicine as well as once as a stabilizer in perfumery industry, negative reports have been noticed by the international authority for restriction its use based on some limited evidences from an in vitro study. The aim of t . . .he present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of styrax and its ethanolic extract using in vivo and in vitro assays, as well as an antimutagenic assay and also to determine its phenolic constituents with chromatographic analysis. Materials and methods In vitro mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of styrax and its ethanolic extract were evaluated by Ames test performed on Salmonella TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation (10– 30,000 µg/plate). The genotoxicity was also studied in vivo by chromosomal aberrations assay on bone marrow of Balb C mice with different its concentrations (500–2000 mg/kg body weight). Cytotoxicity has been evaluated by the MTT assay using L929 cell line. Its phenolic constituents were determined by HPLC analysis. Results Genotoxicological investigations of styrax or its ethanolic extract showed that none of the tested concentrations induced a significant increase in the revertant number of TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation, indicating no mutagenicity to the tested strains. Also results indicated that up to 2000 mg/kg body weight, styrax is not genotoxic in mammalian bone marrow chromosome aberration test in vivo. In cytotoxicity study, the IC50 values of styrax and its ethanolic extract were found to be 50.22±1.80 and 59.69±11.77 µg/mL, respectively. Among the studied reference standards the major phenolic acids in styrax balsam was found to be p-coumaric acid (2.95 mg/g), while in its ethanolic extract not only p-coumaric acid (11.46 mg/g), but also gallic acid (1.60 mg/g) were found to the main components. Conclusion The findings of the present study provide scientific basis to the safety of styrax from the viewpoint of genotoxicity risk, and in fact, it was found to be beneficial against genotoxicity. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Lt Daha fazlası Daha az

Investigations on the in vivo wound healing potential of Hypericum perforatum L.

Süntar, I.P. | Akkol, E.K. | Yilmazer, D. | Baykal, T. | Kirmizibekmez, H. | Alper, M. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2010 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology127 ( 2 ) , pp.468 - 477

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Olive oil extract of the flowering aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is a popular folk remedy for the treatment of wounds in Turkey. Aim of the study: In order to prove the claimed utilization of the plant, the effects of the extracts and the fractions were investigated by using bioassay-guided procedures. For the wound healing activity assessment, in vivo excision and incision wound models were applied. For the anti-inflammatory activity, an in vivo model, based on the inhibition of acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability was used as well. Moreover, a parallel stud . . .y was run on Hypericum scabrum L., which is a widespread species of the gender but not known as a folk remedy for wound healing, to provide a preliminary data to compare and emphasize the selection of correct plant species. Results: Initial investigations proved that the olive oil extract of Hypericum perforatum has a significant wound healing effect on excision (5.1-82.6% inhibition) and circular incision (20.2-100.0% inhibition) wound models. In order to determine the active wound healing ingredient(s), aerial parts of the plant was extracted with ethanol, noteworthy wound healing activity profile was observed with the wound models; between 18.3% and 95.6% in excision model and from 13.9% to 100.0% inhibitions in incision model were determined. The ethanolic extract was then submitted to successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate (EtOAc). Each solvent extract was also applied on the same wound models, consequently, EtOAc subextract was found to be the most active one by inhibiting wounds between 17.9% and 100.0% in excision model, subsequently between 9.4% and 100.0% in incision model. However, all subfractions obtained from the EtOAc subextract using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography showed wound healing activity not more than the whole EtOAc subextract, which revealed that a possible synergistic activity that might be questioned. Among the active Sephadex fractions, Fr. A further yielded hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin and (-)-epicatechin and Fr. B yielded hypericin as the major components. Moreover, a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity was found for the ethanol extract, EtOAc subextract and Sephadex fractions of Hypericum perforatum. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of the active fractions might have a contributory role in the wound healing effect of the plant. Conclusion: Results of the present study have proved that aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum possess remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities supporting the folkloric assertion of the plant in Turkish folk medicine. Flavonoids [hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin and (-)-epicatechin] and naphthoquinones (hypericins) were found as the active components of Hypericum perforatum. On the other hand, ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum showed neither remarkable wound healing nor anti-inflammatory activity demonstrating the importance of correct plant species selection in therapeutic applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Exploring the wound healing activity of Arnebia densiflora (Nordm.) Ledeb. by in vivo models

Akkol, E.K. | Koca, U. | Peşin, I. | Yilmazer, D. | Toker, G. | Yeşilada, E.

Article | 2009 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology124 ( 1 ) , pp.137 - 141

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The roots of Arnebia densiflora (Nordm.) Ledeb. (Boraginaceae), which is an endemic plant for Turkey, have been used for healing of wounds in folk medicine. The extract of the roots in olive oil and mostly the root barks was applied onto open wounds for rapid healing. Aim of the study: To evaluate the wound healing activity of the roots, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Arnebia densiflora. Materials and methods: Incision by using tensiometer and excision models were employed on mice and rats. Results: Signifi . . .cant wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation prepared by using hexane extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol®. Conclusion: The experimental data demonstrated that Arnebia densiflora displayed remarkable wound healing activity. © 2009 Daha fazlası Daha az

Assessment of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Daphne pontica L. (Thymelaeaceae)

Kupeli, E. | Tosun, A. | Yeşilada, Erdem

Article | 2007 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology113 ( 2 ) , pp.332 - 337

The n-hexane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from roots, leaves, stems and flowers with young leaves of Daphne pontica L. (Thymelaeaceae) were investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. For the anti-inflammatory activity assessment, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, PGE2-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models and for the antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test were used. Only ethyl acetate extracts of the roots showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced (22.7 . . .-32.0% inhibition) and PGE2-induced hind paw edema (3.2-27.3% inhibition) as well as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema (47.8-43.3% inhibition) models at 50 mg/kg dose without inducing any apparent gastric lesion or acute toxicity, whereas the other extracts were shown to be ineffective. In addition to roots, ethyl acetate extracts of the stems exhibited 19.5-29.9%; 5.3-23.9%; 36.6-28.1% inhibition on carrageenan-induced and PGE2-induced hind paw edema as well as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models, respectively. On the other hand, none of the extracts showed any significant antinociceptive activity. © 2007 Daha fazlası Daha az

Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles from a folk remedy, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves

Erdemoglu, N. | Akkol, E.K. | Yeşilada, Erdem | Caliş, I.

Article | 2008 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology119 ( 1 ) , pp.172 - 178

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Rhododendron ponticum L. (Ericaceae) is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and to alleviate rheumatic pain and against toothache in Turkish traditional medicine. Aim of the study: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Rhododendron ponticum leaves using in vivo models, and isolation and chemical characterization of the biologically active constituents through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Material and Methods: Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory activity and p-benzoquinone induced abdominal contractions model for th . . .e antinociceptive activity assessment. Results: The ethylacetate fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory (28.4-40.7% inhibition) and antinociceptive (50.7% inhibition) effects as compared to reference compounds. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures flavonol glycosides [a mixture of hyperoside and isoquercitrin (1) and quercitrin (2)] along with one flavanone glycoside [6-C-glycosylnaringenin (3)] were isolated as the active ingredients of ethylacetate extract against carrageenan-induced edema and p-benzoquinone-induced writhes and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. 1 and 2 also showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)- induced mouse ear edema model. Conclusion: Results of the present study supported the utilization of the plant in Turkish folk medicine and revealed that flavones are the major anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles of the leaves. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Exploration of the wound healing potential of Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet: Isolation of apigenin as an active component

Süntar, I. | Küpeli Akkol, E. | Keles, H. | Yeşilada, Erdem | Sarker, S.D.

Article | 2013 | Journal of Ethnopharmacology149 ( 1 ) , pp.103 - 110

Ethnopharmacological relevance In Turkish traditional medicine, the flowers of Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet (Asteraceae) have been used for the treatment of jaundice, for wound-healing and as a diuretic. Aim of the study In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant in wound-healing, the effect of the plant extract was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures active wound-healing component(s) was isolated and its possible role in the wound-healing process was also determined. Material and methods The linear incis . . .ion and the circular excision wound models were applied in order to evaluate in vivo wound-healing potential of Helichrysum graveolens. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, which are known to involve in wound-healing process, were also assessed by the Whittle method and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging assay, respectively. The total phenolic content of the crude extract and solvent fractions was estimated to find correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Combined application of the chromatographic separation techniques on sephadex and silica gel columns, and bioassay techniques have yielded the active wound-healing principle of Helichrysum graveolens. Moreover, in vitro inhibitory effect of active principle on hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase enzymes were investigated to explore the activity pathways. Results The 85% methanol (MeOH) extract of Helichrysum graveolens flowers displayed significant wound-healing, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Then the crude extract was partitioned by successive solvent extractions, in increasing polarity, to give five solvent fractions. Among the solvent fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exerted the highest activity. The EtOAc fraction was further subjected to chromatographic separations to yield active constituent and its structure was elucidated to be apigenin by spectrometric methods. Further in vivo and in vitro assays revealed that apigenin was one of the components responsible for the wound-healing effect of the plant remedy and also found to possess significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyaluronidase and anti-collagenase activities. Conclusion Present study supported the traditional use of Helichrysum graveolens flowers for wound-healing and through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures from the crude extract apigenin was isolated as one of the active components. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

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