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Diabetes mellitus and phytotherapy in Turkey

Parildar, H. | Serter, R. | Yeşilada, Erdem

Review | 2011 | Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association61 ( 11 ) , pp.1116 - 1120

This study reports a literature review aimed to analyse various studies related to the use of phytotherapy in diabetes mellitus in Turkey in order to provide additional information for healthcare professionals. The incidence of Diabetes Mellitus is rising and many of the diabetics frequently use herbal treatments along with modern medical treatment for glycaemic control and/or improve their well-being. Several electronic databases (such as Medline and Pubmed) were searched for 1990-2010 period (till May, 2010) and 33 related articles were analysed. Many studies-mostly animal trials- have been conducted in this field. Among the herbs . . . most-commonly used along with modern medical therapies and also in folkloric medicine, we searched for bitter melon, cinnamon, fenugreek, olive leaf, black seed and white mulberry. Studies conducted in this field have produced conflicting results and, the necessity to conduct randomized, placebo-controlled clinical human studies to develop new drugs from herbs, as in the case of metformin, still remains important. Besides, further studies are required to address the issues of standardization and quality control of existing preparations. More importantly, healthcare professionals caring for diabetic patients need to be aware of phytotherapy to incorporate phytomedicine into their practices and should undertake more responsibility in relation to these kind of therapies that are commonly-used throughout the world Daha fazlası Daha az

French direct investments in the Ottoman Empire before world war I

V.N. Geyikdagi

Review | 2011 | Enterprise and Society12 ( 3 ) , pp.525 - 561

Foreign direct investment entered into the Ottoman Empire to support and develop foreign trade. Europeans who wanted to sell their manufactured products and acquire raw materials were instrumental in the construction of trade-related infrastructure in this country. Therefore, the first French investments, like those of other countries, were made for constructing railways and ports. The growth of raw material production in primary commodities, finally led to an increase in the number of foreign service companies such as banks and insurance providers that served these transport and production facilities. The initial motivations of Fre . . .nch investors were mainly economic as they tried to find new markets and secure a viable share in these markets before their international competitors. Motives gradually became political as the opinion about the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire got stronger by the end of the nineteenth century. The French government assisted its investors in obtaining important concessions for investments in Anatolia, the Balkans, and the Arab provinces of the Empire Daha fazlası Daha az

Basut, L.L.

Review | 2017 | Filozofski Vestnik38 ( 1 ) , pp.7 - 21

Impact of the Clean Development Mechanism on wind energy investments in Turkey

Tunç, M. | Pak, R.

Review | 2012 | Energy, Sustainability and Society2 ( 1 ) , pp.1 - 11

Background: As carbon trading continues to be implemented on both a national and an international scale, it is becoming an important factor in renewable energy investment decisions. Turkey, with continuous growth of carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption since 2001, ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2009 and began registration of projects with greenhouse gas reductions in 2010. In light of these developments, wind energy resources with a potential of 48,000 MW are among the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy in Turkey. The aim of our study is to reveal the importance of the Clean Development . . . Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol on wind energy investment decisions. Methods: A broad review of wind energy in Turkey is given, and then, a comprehensive feasibility study of a wind energy firm with a valuation model including Certified Emission Reduction (CER) prices is applied to a case study, the Mega Metallurgy Power. With a holistic and interdisciplinary system engineering approach, results are obtained using comprehensive analysis of technology, emission, and power generation of a wind energy firm linked to a valuation model. Results: This comprehensive model sets the investment decision-making criteria, the enterprise value comparison with total financing. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is run to show that the enterprise value is positively correlated with CER prices. Conclusions: Based on these results, it is concluded that if the world's largest carbon offsetting program, the CDM, prevails after 2012, CER prices will have a positive impact on wind energy firm valuations and related investment decisions. © 2012 Tunç and Pak; licensee Springer Daha fazlası Daha az

In the Name of Science: Don't Tamper with the Deceptive Truth ...

Reis, HJ | Mukhamedyarov, MA | Rizvanov, AA | Palotas, A

Review | 2009 | MINI-REVIEWS IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY9 ( 14 ) , pp.1676 - 1677

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) is one of the most controversial, most ambivalent and most important figures in the history of modern science. The debate surrounding him with respect to nuclear weapons and National Socialism appears unending. Even though Heisenberg's uncertainty principle of the quantum system and his involvement in the Nazi atomic bomb project have been thoroughly discussed in various journals over the past decades, no communication has ever been published at a holistic level of his greatest Nobel-prize winning achievement in theoretical physics. In order to fill up this hole, this piece explicitly communicates the H . . .eisenberg's paradox at all levels of science Daha fazlası Daha az

Predictors of chronic valvular disease in patients with rheumatic carditis

Yilmazer, M.M. | Öner, T. | Tavli, V. | Çilengiroglu, Ö.V. | Güven, B. | Meşe, T. | Devrim, I.

Review | 2012 | Pediatric Cardiology33 ( 2 ) , pp.239 - 244

This study investigated the predictors of chronic valvular disease in children with rheumatic carditis. The short- to mid-term follow-up records of 88 patients (mean age, 10.68 ± 2.5 years) with chronic rheumatic heart disease were reviewed. The mean follow-up period was 2.95 ± 1.4 years. Valvular involvement completely improved for 24 of the patients (27%) during the follow-up period. The multivariate logistic regression analysis found initial left ventricular dilation to be a significant independent risk factor associated with the persistence of either valvular involvement or mitral regurgitation. Furthermore, persistence of mitra . . .l regurgitation was found to be strongly correlated with cardiac murmur at admission. No significant correlation was detected between age, gender, severity of valvular involvements at initial evaluation, and chronic valvular disease. The majority of patients with rheumatic carditis had normal left ventricular systolic function. However, a significant proportion of patients had left ventricular dilation, reported in the medical literature to be associated with the severity of valve involvement. This study found no relation between initial severity of valve involvements and chronic valvular disease. For this reason, increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter may be secondary to myocardial involvement independent of valvular regurgitation. The findings in this study also suggest that subclinic carditis had a better outcome than clinically evident carditis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Daha fazlası Daha az

Surface-enhanced raman scattering for biofilm characterization

Efeoglu, E. | Çulha, Mustafa

Review | 2013 | Spectroscopy (Santa Monica)28 ( 10 ) , pp.239 - 244

Microorganisms are known as the predominant life form on Earth because of their variability and high metabolic activity. Most of the organisms require protection during their growth after their adhesion onto a surface. The protection layers are known as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which include organic based materials such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and humic-like substances. Microorganisms are found in an embedded form in an EPS matrix, and this whole structure is referred to as a biofilm. The identification and characterization of microorganisms and their growth dynamics based on produced meta . . .bolites are very important in fields ranging from the accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections to industrial processes. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique for identification and characterization of biological molecules and biomolecular organizations. In this review, the effort to use SERS for in situ molecular characterization of biofilms is discussed Daha fazlası Daha az

A multi-national validity analysis of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24)

Croucher, S.M. | Kelly, S. | Rahmani, D. | Jackson, K. | Galy-Badenas, F. | Lando, A. | Orunbekov, B.

Review | 2019 | Annals of the International Communication Association43 ( 3 ) , pp.193 - 209

Methodological issues abound when conducting cross-cultural research. In this manuscript we discuss three methodological issues present in many cross-cultural communication studies: lack of geographic diversity, reliability, and validity. To explore these issues the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) is assessed. The PRCA-24 serves as an exemplar of a US-designed and -validated measure frequently used outside the US without tests of validity or measurement invariance. In fact, since 1990 less than 10 studies have reported validity results, often citing fit issues. The PRCA-24 was administered to respondents from . . . 11 countries and failed to yield acceptable fit statistics in all samples, showing poor construct validity. Implications for cross-cultural research are discussed, with particular emphasis on recommendations for increased cross-cultural methodological rigor. © 2019, © 2019 International Communication Association Daha fazlası Daha az

Review on biothermoydnamics applications: timeline, challenges, and opportunities

Özilgen, M.

Review | 2017 | International Journal of Energy Research41 ( 11 ) , pp.1513 - 1533

Research on biothermodynamics dates back to the publication of the manuscript What Is Life? by Schrödinger in the 1940s, which encouraged the use of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics for the analysis of biological processes. In the 1960s and 1970s, development of the early genetic engineering techniques, difficulties in the sugar imports to the USA due to the trade embargo imposed on Cuba, and the oil price hike after the Arab–Israeli wars created a positive environment in the USA to foster the merger of biology with engineering. The synergy established between biology and engineering in the 1960s created an irreversible . . .stimulus for scientific and technological development in the USA and elsewhere. Advances in biothermodynamics have roots deep in the positive environment of the 1960s and 1970s. Exergy analyses were initially used to evaluate efficiency of the fuel-utilizing and energy-utilizing processes. In the early 2010s, exergy analyses found application in development of the industrial production processes of the biological origin and later directly in the cellular processes in the body. Assessing the comfort of the body in terms of entropy generation and exergy destruction, exergy efficiency of the metabolic pathways in the brain, exergy efficiency of the muscle work, and life span entropy generation and understanding and finding ways to postpone the symptoms of aging were among these studies. Application of the biothermodynamics in the medical fields will provide opportunities in the health sciences and medical technology and improve the quality of life of humans and animals. Comparing the exergetic efficiency of the competing theories on the brain energy metabolism, offering some help to prevent heart attacks in the amputees, and finding the causes of the difference in the crop yields of the plants are among the outcomes of the current biothermodynamics research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Daha fazlası Daha az

Prevention of shockwave induced functional and morphological alterations: An overwiew

Sarica, K. | Yencilek, F.

Review | 2008 | Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia80 ( 1 ) , pp.27 - 33

Experimental as well as clinical findings reported in the literature suggest that treatment with shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) causes renal parenchymal damage mainly by generating free radicals through ischaemia /reperfusion injury mechanism. Although SWL-induced renal damage is well tolerated in the majority of healthy cases with no permanent functional and/or morphologic side effects, a subset of patients with certain risk factors requires close attention on this aspect among which the ones with pre-existing renal disorders, urinary tract infection, previous lithotripsy history and solitary kidneys could be mentioned. It is clear t . . .hat in such patients lowering the number of shock waves (per session) could be beneficial and has been applied by the physicians as the first practical step of diminishing SWL induced parenchymal damage. On the other hand, taking the injurious effects of high energy shock wave (HESW) induced free radical formation on renal parenchyma and subsequent histopathologic alterations into account, physicians searched for some protective agents in an attempt to prevent or at least to limit the extent of the functional as well as the morphologic alterations. Among these agents calcium channel blocking agents (verapamil and nifedipine), antioxidant agents (allopurinol, vitamin E and selenium) and potassium citrate have been used to minimize these unestimated adverse effects. Additionally, therapeutic application of these agents on reducing stone recurrence particularly after SWL will gain more importance in the future in order to limit new stone formation in these cases. Lastly, as experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated, combination of anti-oxidants with free radical scavengers may provide superior renal protection against shock wave induced trauma. However, we believe that further investigations are certainly needed to determine the dose-response relationship between the damaging effects of SWL application and the protective role of these agents Daha fazlası Daha az

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