- Eklemek veya çıkarmak istediğiniz kriterleriniz için 'Dahil' / 'Hariç' seçeneğini kullanabilirsiniz. Sorgu satırları birbirine 'VE' bağlacı ile bağlıdır. - İptal tuşuna basarak normal aramaya dönebilirsiniz.
This study empirically examines aggregate tourism outflows in the case of Turkey using the time-series data for 1970-2005. As far as this article is concerned, there is no previous empirical work dealing with tourist outflows from Turkey. The previous tourism studies of Turkey have focused, by and large, on inbound tourism demand analyses. However, as a developing country and an important tourism destination, Turkey has also been a significant source for generating a substantial number of tourists in recent years. Therefore, the tourist outflows also merit empirical analysis. Total tourist outflows from Turkey are related to real in . . .come and relative prices. The bounds testing to cointegration procedure proposed by Pesaran et al (2001) is employed to compute the short- and long-run elasticities of income and relative prices. An augmented form of Granger causality analysis is conducted among the variables of outbound tourist flows, income and relative prices to determine the direction of causality. In the long run, causality runs interactively through the error correction term from income and relative prices to outbound tourist flows. However, in the short run, causality runs only from income to outbound tourism flows. The aggregate tourism outflows equation is also checked for the parameter stability via the tests of cumulative sum (CUSUM) and cumulative sum of the squares (CUSUMSQ). The results suggest that income is the most significant variable in explaining total tourist outflows from Turkey and there is a stable outbound tourism demand function. The results also lead to important policy recommendations
The increase in the prevalence of epidemic strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals and community requires special attention of infection control. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic phenotype (i.e. infectivity and resistotype) and genotypic character-istics (i.e. PFGE-pulsotyping, SLST-spa typing, MLST-sequence typing, eBURST-clonal complex detection algorithm) of clinical MRSA isolates in the Central Blacksea region of Turkey, in order to understand their short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics, and to investigate any probable presence of a significant clus . . .tering. This prospective study included consecutive but non-repetitive 48 MRSA isolates (of them 18 were colonized strains and 30 were causes of nosocomial infection) and seven methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA, all were isolated from nosocomial infection), collected between December 2006-February 2007 period from hospitalized patients. Identification of the isolates were performed by Vitek-2 automated system (BioMérieux, USA), and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method and Vitek-2 automated system. The MRSA isolates found susceptible to erythromycin (n= 10) were further investigated for the presence of ermA gene by the PCR method. All the strains were typed by spa-typing and PFGE-pulsotyping methods. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives were selected (3 MRSA, 7 MSSA) and typed with MLST typing method. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives with different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were selected (n= 8), and SCCmec types were determined by the multiplex PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolates were digitized to get standardized antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Clustering of MRSA isolates in pattern groups on the basis of discriminatory characteristics, namely infectivity, phenotype and genotype were statistically analyzed with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a result, three different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were found in MSSA isolates, whereas 13 were identified in MRSA isolates. In MSSA isolates, seven different PFGE-pulsotypes were detected, as compared to 14 pulsotypes in MRSA isolates. Among MRSA isolates, 10 sporadic strains with single PFGE-pulsotypes were detected. All MRSA isolates, with two exceptions (t459, t632), were of t030 spa-type; in the MLST analysis of the representatives of different spa-types (n= 3), a single type of MLST-clonal complex (CC8) and single MLST-sequence type (ST239) were identified. Each of the seven MSSA isolates yielded different spa-types, MLST-clonal complex types and MLST-sequence types (t777-ST5-CC5; t660-ST25-CC5; t153-ST34-CC30; t015-ST45-CC45; t267-ST97-CC97; t377-ST360-CC8; t084-ST15-C15). In the statistical analysis of 38 non-sporadic MRSA isolates, the isolates in Group-13 (n= 16; infectious, resistotype 14, pulsotype 4; antimicrobial resistance score= 24) displayed significant infectivity-phenotype-genotype clustering (p< 0.001). In 27 of the MRSA isolates, decreased susceptibility to teicoplanin (MIC= 4 µg/mL) was detected. Although, global MRSA isolates belonging to MLST-CC8, MLST-ST239, t030 spa-type were usually expected to be resistant to erythromycin, 10 such strains were erythromycin susceptible. However, ermA gene was found in six of these 10 strains, leading to a conclusion that the ermA gene of these isolates might be dysfunctional due to a point mutation or deletion. Selected representatives of MRSA isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (n= 8) were detected to be SCCmec type III. In conclusion, S.aureus isolates in the patient population of our hospital representing the Central Blacksea region showed statistically significant clustering in infectivity, antimicrobial resistance phenotype and clonal genotype (p< 0.001). The dominant MRSA clone was ST239 which was one of the five major pandemic MRSA clones. Nosocomial MSSA isolates displayed long-term clonal diversity. This study produced regional evolutionary-epidemiological data that may support further regional, national and international long-term surveillance studies of S.aureus strains