- Eklemek veya çıkarmak istediğiniz kriterleriniz için 'Dahil' / 'Hariç' seçeneğini kullanabilirsiniz. Sorgu satırları birbirine 'VE' bağlacı ile bağlıdır. - İptal tuşuna basarak normal aramaya dönebilirsiniz.
The effectiveness of instructional design for developing listening comprehension in English as a second language (L2) is of prime concern to language teachers. Several technology based instructional designs with the emphasis on distinct presentation of listening tasks are highlighted in literature. However, there are a lack of empirical studies to clarify issues concerning modality differences for foreign language (FL) learners and their effect on comprehension. Moreover, learners' listening performance may be affected by the modality in which the tasks are presented (extraneous cognitive load) or the amount of cognitive resources t . . .hat learners invest in schema construction and automation (germane cognitive load). Based on cognitive load theory, this study examines whether the subjects' listening performance varied when the instructional formats of listening tasks were presented in three different modalities. Listening with auditory materials only (LO), narrow listening (NL), listening with a full written script (LFS) were employed to evaluate the subjects' listening performance. This study employs a mixed method design utilizing qualitative and quantitative tools including semi-structured interviews with test takers to assess the best facilitating modality for listening comprehension as well as post test scores to determine student performance. Two hundred and eight, intermediate and advanced level pre-service teacher candidates of English whose L1 was Turkish completed four tests through different representations that required them to listen to dialogues and to complete a number of multiple choice comprehension questions