During the times of World War I, Germany was an important pioneer in many areas of science and medicine. Alois Alzheimer, who lived during this period, was one of the founders of the field of neuropathology. He described a form of dementia as a brain destroying disease more than 100 years ago. This paper provides an overview on the discovery of the Alzheimer disease and the physician behind this discovery, Alois Alzheimer, through philately.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of two cavity disinfectants, a 2% chlorhexidine and a 1% benzalkonium chloride solution, on the shear and tensile bond strengths of dentin bonding systems to dentin. Method and materials: Superficial dentin was exposed from 84 freshly extracted human third molars. The teeth were randomly assigned to two main groups according to the bonding agent used, either One Step or Optibond Solo. Each dentin bonding system had six test groups (three for shear, three for tensile testing), and each test group had a control and two cavity disinfectant groups. In the control groups, dentin bonding systems were appl . . .ied after etching the dentin, whereas in the cavity disinfectant groups, dentin was conditioned and treated for 20 seconds with the disinfectants before applying the dentin bonding systems. A hybrid resin composite then was applied to all treated samples. After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, shear and tensile tests were performed. Data were analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean shear and tensile bond strengths of One Step and Optibond Solo were not significantly different from each other, and the cavity disinfectants also had no significant effects on shear and tensile bond strength values versus the controls. Conclusion: The results indicate that the use of 2% chlorhexidine and 1% benzalkonium chloride solutions as cavity disinfectants after etching the dentin did not affect the shear and tensile bond strengths of One Step and Optibond Solo
A new phenylethanoid glycoside, named digiviridifloroside (1), was isolated from the leaves of Digitalis viridiflora Lindley along with a known phenylethanoid glycoside, calceolarioside A (2), two flavonoid glycosides, scutellarein 7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3) and hispidulin 7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4), two cleroindicins, cleroindicins B (5) and F (6), a nucleoside, adenosine (7), as well as a mixture of ß-glucopyranosyl-(1›6)-4-O-caffeoyl-/ß-glucopyranose and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. The structure of the new compound was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-ß-phenylethoxy-6-O-(E)-feruloyl-ß-glucopyranosyl-(1›6)-4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-ß-glucopy . . .ranoside (1) based on extensive 1D-and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS. Digiviridifloroside represents a rare type of phenylethanoid glycoside which bears two aromatic acyl units in its structure. In addition to phytochemical studies, the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against three pathogenic bacteria and three yeast strains using a microdilution method. Among the tested compounds, 5 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus NRRLB 3711 with a MIC value of 25 µg/mL, whereas compounds 5 and 6 showed relatively high anticandidal activity against Candida strains with MIC values down to 12.5 µg/mL, in comparison to the standard antimicrobial compounds