Regulation of signal transduction cascades by Pterostilbenes in different cancers: Is it a death knell for oncogenic pathways

Butt, G. | Attar, Rukset | Tabassum, S. | Aras, A. | Qadir, M.I. | Ozbey, U. | Farooqi, A.A.

Review | 2017 | Cellular and Molecular Biology63 ( 12 ) , pp.5 - 10

Interdisciplinary research has revolutionized the field of medicine and we have witnessed exponential increase in the high-impact research in past few decades. However, the road to this burgeoning research field is obstacle-ridden because of intratumor heterogeneity, loss of apoptosis and dysregulation of spatio-temporally controlled signaling pathways. Ground-breaking findings obtained through genetic, genomic and proteomic studies have considerably improved our concepts related to the complexity of protein network and excitingly, discovery of miRNAs has added another layer of intricacy to quantitatively regulated gene networks. In . . . this review, we chronicle the milestone achievements and discuss how Pterostilbenes effectively regulated different cellular pathways. We have provided detailed mechanistic insights related to regulation of JAK-STAT signaling, Notch pathway, Wnt mediated intracellular signaling by pterostilbene. Underlying mechanisms about regulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways by pterostilbene in different cancers. Regulation of Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) proteins and Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in cancer cells by pterostilbene. Pterostilbene has also been reported to modulate the expression of various oncogenic and tumor suppressor microRNAs in cancer cells. Better and sharper comprehension of the concepts associated with the modes of action of pterostilbene in different cancers will be useful in identification of cancers which can be efficiently targeted by pterostilbene. © 2017 by the C.M.B. Association Daha fazlası Daha az

Interplay of long non-coding RNAs and TGF/SMAD signaling in different cancers

Farooqi, A.A. | Attar, Rukset | Qureshi, M.Z. | Fayyaz, S. | Sohail, M.I. | Sabitaliyevich, U.Y. | Alaaeddine, N.

Article | 2018 | Cellular and Molecular Biology64 ( 15 ) , pp.1 - 6

Based on the exciting insights gleaned from decades of ground-breaking research, it has become evident that deregulated signaling pathways play instrumental role in cancer development and progression. Interestingly discovery of non-coding RNAs has revolutionized our understanding related to transcription, post-transcription and translation. Modern era has witnessed landmark discoveries in the field of molecular cancer and non-coding RNA biology has undergone tremendous broadening. There has been an exponential growth in the list of publications related to non-coding RNAs and overwhelmingly increasing classes of non-coding RNAs are a . . .dding new layers of complexity to already complicated nature of cancer. Regulation of TGF/SMAD signaling by miRNAs and LncRNAs has opened new horizons for therapeutic targeting of TGF/SMAD pathway. In this review we have set spotlight on central role of LncRNAs in modulation of TGF/ SMAD pathway. Major proportion of the available evidence is underlining positive role of LncRNAs in contextual regulation of TGF/SMAD pathway. LncRNAs are vital to these regulatory networks because they provide a background support to make the TGF/SMAD mediated intracellular signaling more smooth or make transduction cascade more flexible in response to cues from extracellular environment. Therefore, in accordance with this notion, MALAT1, OIP5-AS1, MIR100HG, HOTAIR, ANRIL, PVT1, AFAP1-AS1, SPRY4-IT, ZEB2NAT, TUG1 and Lnc-SNHG1 have been reported to positively regulate TGF/SMAD signaling. In this review, we have focused on the regulation of TGF/SMAD signaling by LncRNAs and how these non-coding RNAs can be therapeutically exploited. Short-interfering RNA (siRNA) and natural products are currently being tested for efficacy against different LncRNAs. Nanotechnological strategies to efficiently deliver LncRNA-targeting siRNAs are also currently being investigated in different cancers. © 2018 by the C.M.B. Association. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

VEGF mediated signaling in oral cancer

Lin, X. | Khalid, S. | Qureshi, M.Z. | Attar, Rukset | Yaylim, I. | Ucak, I. | Ismail, M.

Review | 2016 | Cellular and Molecular Biology62 ( 14 ) , pp.64 - 68

Increasingly it is being realized that oral cancer arises from genetic/epigenetic mutations, dysregulations of spatio-temporally controlled signal transduction cascades and loss of apoptosis. Epidemiological studies have provided a stronger association between tobacco use (chewed and smoked) and oral cancer. Nevertheless, alcohol has also gained attention as a significant risk factor, having a multiplicative synergistic cancer promoting effect with tobacco. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) mediated signaling has gained limelight because of its instrumental role in endothelial cell proliferation, survival, invasion, migratio . . .n, chemotaxis of bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells, vasodilation and vascular permeability. In this review we provide most recent updates on involvement of VEGF/VEGFR signaling axis in oral cancer. We partition this multi-component review into different sections and summarize latest advancements related to therapies against VEGF/VEGFR signaling axis and how microRNAs tactfully modulate VEGF and VEGFR in oral cancers. Data obtained through preclinical and clinical studies has revealed that therapeutic benefits associated with VEGF-targeted therapy are complicated in different cancers and involve myriad of mechanisms. A better understanding of VEGF/VEGFR mediated signaling in oral cancers and testing of novel therapeutic agents in preclinical models will prove to be helpful in effective translation of safest drugs from benchtop to the bedside. © 2016 by the C.M.B Daha fazlası Daha az

Piperlongumine as anticancer agent: The story so far about killing many birds with one stone

Farooqi, A.A. | Attar, Rukset | Yaylim, I. | Qureshi, M.Z. | Todorovska, M. | Karatoprak, G.S. | Lin, X.

Article | 2018 | Cellular and Molecular Biology64 ( 11 ) , pp.102 - 107

Piperlongumine is a biologically and pharmacologically active constituent of the plant Piper longum. This compound is gradually gaining attention because of its ability to inhibit/prevent different cancers. Modern era of molecular oncology is incomplete without ground-breaking discoveries made in the field of cell signaling pathways. High-throughput technologies have considerably improved our understanding about wide ranging signal transduction cascades which play crucial role in cancer development and progression. It is exciting to note that piperlongumine has been shown to pleiotropically modulate different oncogenic signaling pat . . .hways. We partition this multi-component review into discrete sections and categorically summarize key findings related to excellent ability of piperlongumine to therapeutically target JAK-STAT, NF-kB and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. We also set spotlight on regulation of TRAIL pathway and autophagy by piperlongumine in different cancers. On the basis of the current understanding of piperlongumine, molecular biologists and pharmacologists will develop the next generation of translational studies, which will prove to be helpful in improving the clinical outcome and getting a step closer to personalized medicine. © 2018 by the C.M.B. Association. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Targeting of BCR-ABL: Lessons learned from BCR-ABL inhibition

Lin, X. | Qureshi, M.Z. | Attar, Rukset | Khalid, S. | Tahir, F. | Yaqub, A. | Ismail, M.

Review | 2016 | Cellular and Molecular Biology62 ( 12 ) , pp.129 - 137

In 1960 researchers reported that balanced translocation between chromosomes 22 and 9 resulted in the generation of Philadelphia chromosome. This breakthrough revolutionized our knowledge related to leukemia biology and contemporary studies revealed that chromosomal translocation resulted in the fusion between the 5' segment of BCR gene and 3' segment of the ABL gene to form BCR/ABL fusion gene. Research over the years has progressively and systematically improved our understanding of the genetic and proteomic basis of Leukemia. Genome-wide profiling studies, including genome sequencing and microarray analysis, have helped us in ide . . .ntification of different intracellular signaling cascades that are frequently mutated in Leukemia. We partition this multi-component review into different sections related to biochemical characteristics of BCR-ABL+ cells, underlying mechanism of generation of mutations and crosstalk of BCR-ABL with various intracellular signaling cascades. We also summarize how BCR-ABL encoding mRNA is negatively regulated by different miRNAs and the strategies which are currently being used to effectively target BCR-ABL protein. We also provide an overview of the natural products which have been used for targeting of BCR-ABL protein. Better understanding of the protein network of Philadelphia positive leukemic cells will prove to be helpful in getting a step closer to personalized medicine Daha fazlası Daha az

Natural products are the future of anticancer therapy: Preclinical and clinical advancements of viscum album phytometabolites

Attar, Rukset | Tabassum, S. | Fayyaz, S. | Ahmad, M.S. | Nogueira, D.R. | Yaylim, I. | Ismail, M.

Article | 2015 | Cellular and Molecular Biology61 ( 6 ) , pp.62 - 68

Cancer is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Research over the years has gradually provided a near complete resolution of cancer landscape and it is now known that genetic/epigenetic mutations, inactivation of tumor suppressors, Overexpression of oncogenes, spatio-temporally dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and loss of apoptosis are some of the most extensively studied biological mechanisms that underpin cancer development and progression. Increasingly it is being realized that current therapeutic interventions are becoming ineffective because of tumor . . . heterogeneity and rapidly developing resistance against drugs. Considerable biological activities exerted by bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources have revolutionized the field of natural product chemistry and rapid developments in preclinical studies are encouraging. Viscum album has emerged as a deeply studied natural source with substantial and multifaceted biological activities. In this review we have attempted to provide recent breakthroughs in existing scientific literature with emphasis on targeting of protein network in cancer cells. We partition this review into different sections, highlighting latest information from cell culture studies, preclinical and clinically oriented studies. We summarized how bioactive ingredients of Viscum album modulated extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in cancer cells. However, surprisingly, none of the study reported stimulatory effects on TRAIL receptors. The review provided in-depth analysis of how Viscum album modulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in cancer cells and how bioactive chemicals tactfully targeted cytoskeletal machinery in cancer cells as evidenced by cell culture studies. It is noteworthy that Viscum album has entered into various phases of clinical trials, however, there are still knowledge gaps in our understanding regarding how various bioactive constituents of Viscum album modulate intracellular signaling cascades in cancer. Better and deeper comprehension oncogenic signaling cascades will prove to be helful in getting a step closer to individualized medicine. © 2015 Daha fazlası Daha az

Maslinic acid as an effective anticancer agent

Lin, X. | Ozbey, U. | Sabitaliyevich, U.Y. | Attar, Rukset | Ozcelik, B. | Zhang, Y. | Farooqi, A.A.

Article | 2018 | Cellular and Molecular Biology64 ( 10 ) , pp.87 - 91

Maslinic acid (2?,3ß-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenic compound. Maslinic acid is gradually gaining attention as an excellent pharmacologically active product because of its premium biological properties. In this review we will focus on chemopreventive properties of Maslinic acid against different cancers. Seemingly, available data is limited and we have yet to unravel how Maslinic acid therapeutically targeted oncogenic cell signal transduction cascades in different cancers. Moreover, there are visible knowledge gaps about the ability of Maslinic acid to modulate oncogenic and tumor . . .suppressor microRNAs in various cancers. © 2018 by the C.M.B. Association Daha fazlası Daha az

VDBP, VDR mutations and other factors related with vitamin D metabolism may be associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Kirac, D. | Yazan, C.D. | Gezmis, H. | Yaman, A. | Haklar, G. | Sirikci, O. | Deyneli, O.

Article | 2018 | Cellular and Molecular Biology6 ( 3 ) , pp.11 - 16

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an insulin dependent autoimmune disorder resulting the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Another possible factor considered to be related with T1DM is vitamin D deficiency. Therefore in this study it was aimed to investigate the associations between T1DM, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene mutations which are related with vitamin D metabolism. Fifty five T1DM paitents and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited to the study. FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410) mutations in VDR; rs4588 and rs7041 polymorphisms in VDBP were investigated with real-time polym . . .erase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other risk factors related with T1DM were also investigated. Results were evaluated statistically. Statistically significant relations were found in glucose, HbA1c, TSH, higher 25[OH]D, free vitamin D, calcium, albumin, log25[OH]D, retinopathy, higher than 30 mg/day microalbuminuria in T1DM patients. Also statistically significant association was found between C allele in Fok1 and T1DM in patients. When the relation between the risk factors and mutations were investigated, it was found that VDBP, free vitamin D and bioactive vitamin D were significantly associated with rs7041 mutation in VDBP whereas HDL was significantly associated with rs2228570 mutation in VDR. Other studies with larger data sets may demonstrate more reliable statistical results to rule out genotype-phenotype correlations of the disease. © 2018 by the C.M.B. Association Daha fazlası Daha az

HMGCR and ApoE mutations may cause different responses to lipid lowering statin therapy

Kirac, D. | Bayam, E. | Dagdelen, M. | Gezmis, H. | Sarikaya, S. | Pala, S. | Genc, E.

Article | 2017 | Cellular and Molecular Biology6 ( 10 ) , pp.43 - 48

Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its complications are the major causes of death in the world. Although statins have been used to lower lipid levels in CAD patients, this goal can not be attained in 1/3 of the patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether common variations in HMG-CoA Reductase(HMGCR) and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genes involved in lipid and statin metabolism modify the effect of statins on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in CAD patients. A hundred CAD patients were enrolled into the study. At the beginning of the study biochemical measurements were performed to determine the baseline lev . . .els performed. Patients were treated with 40 mg atorvastatin for 2 months and biochemical measurements were repeated. According to the post-treatment, LDL-c levels, patients were divided into 2 groups as non-responders and responders, respectively. The information regarding the risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption etc. were also obtained. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. The presence of rs17244841 ve rs17238540 mutations in HMGCR and ?2, ?3 and ?4 variants of ApoE were determined by using RT-PCR. Results were evaluated statistically. HMGCR mutatations were mostly found in responders and ?4 variant of ApoE was mostly found in non-responders. It was also found that presence of HMGCR mutations causes a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-c levels. Also presence of ?2 variant of ApoE causes a statistically significant increase in trigliseride levels. Our findings should be investigated with other researchers to clarify the mechanism. © 2017 by the C.M.B. Association Daha fazlası Daha az

Relation of MPO, MnSOD, NQO1 gene variants in endometrial carcinoma in the line of PCR-RFLP methods

Kuran, S.B. | Iplik, E.S. | Cakmakoglu, B. | Kahraman, O.T. | Iyibozkurt, A.C. | Koc, A. | İşbir, Turgay

Article | 2018 | Cellular and Molecular Biology64 ( 4 ) , pp.78 - 82

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be responsible for inducing DNA damage leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and cell death if the capacity of the protective antioxidant system is impaired. Endometrial carcinoma is the primary cancer type in the female genital system. The enhanced cell lipid peroxidation and impaired antioxidant enzyme activities observed in patients with endometrial cancer indicate the potential for oxidative injury to cells and cell membranes in such patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between gene variants of superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MP . . .O), and NADPH quinone oxido reductase (NQO1), and their possible role in endometrial cancer in Turkish patients. According to results, MPO G+ genotype and AG genotype were significantly increased in patients compared with controls ( Daha fazlası Daha az

In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, apoptotic, and anti-microbial activities of Cladonia pocillum

M. Ersoz | Z.M. Coskun | B. Acikgoz | I. Karalti | G. Cobanoglu | C. Sesal

Article | 2017 | Cellular and Molecular Biology63 ( 7 ) , pp.69 - 75

The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic, cytotoxic, and anti-oxidant effects of extracts from the lichen Cladonia pocillumon human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and to characterize the anti-microbial features. MCF-7 cells were treated with methanolic C. pocillum extract for 24h. The cytotoxicity of the extract was tested with MTT. Moreover, its anti-proliferative effects were examined with immunocytochemical method. Apoptosis and biochemical parameters were detected in MCF-7. The methanol and chloroform extracts of the lichen were tested for anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Ent . . .erococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using the disc diffusion method and calculation of minimal inhibitory concentrations. Although BrdU incorporation was not observed in MCF-7 cells treated with methanol extract at a concentration above 0.2 mg/mL, a significant decrease was observed int he percentage of PCNA immunoreactive cells in groups treated with 0.2, 0.4, 06, and 0.8 mg/mL methanol extracts of C.pocillum (49±6.3, 44±5.2, 23±2.5, 0, respectively) compared to that of control (85±4.5). The percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in groups treated with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mg/mL extracts of the C.pocillum (54±3.5, 76±2.6, 77±1.8, 82±4.2, respectively) compared with that of control group (3.9±1.5).The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against MCF-7 cells was 0.802 mg/mL .Although the chloroform extract showed more effective anti-microbial activity overall, the methanol extract showed higher anti-fungal activity. Collectively, the results of our study indicate that C.pocillum extracts have strong anti-microbial and apoptotic effects. This lichen therefore shows potential for development as a natural anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and apoptotic agent. © 2017 by the C.M.B. Association. All rights reserved Daha fazlası Daha az

Effects of PAX9 and MSX1 gene variants to hypodontia, tooth size and the type of congenitally missing teeth

Kirac, D. | Eraydin, F. | Avcilar, T. | Ulucan, K. | Özdemir, F. | Guney, A.I. | İşbir, Turgay

Article | 2016 | Cellular and Molecular Biology62 ( 13 ) , pp.78 - 84

Tooth agenesis, affecting up to 20% of human population, is one of the most common congenital disorder. The most frequent form of tooth agenesis is known as hypodontia, which is characterized by the absence of one to five permanent teeth excluding third molars. It was considered that hypodontia is especially related with gene mutations which play role in tooth formation. Additionally mutations in PAX9 and/or MSX1 have been identified as the defects responsible for missing permanent molars and second premolars. In some studies it was also found that PAX9 and MSX1 gene mutations may change tooth size. Therefore in this study all of th . . .ese factors were investigated. Thirty one patients and 30 controls were enrolled to the study. Information about tooth sizes and type of congenitally missing teeth were collected. MSX1 and PAX9 gene mutations were investigated by direct sequencing. Results were evaluated statistically. As a result, 22 variations were detected in PAX9 in which 18 of them are novel. In addition, 7 variations were found in MSX1 in which 5 of them are novel and one of them lead to amino acid change. Statistically significant relations were found between detected variations and tooth sizes. Any relation between mutations and type of congenitally missing teeth were not detected. In conclusion, especially new mutations which may cause hypodontia, effect tooth size and type of congenitally missing teeth, should be investigated with other researchers for clarifying the mechanism. © 2016 by the C.M.B. Association Daha fazlası Daha az

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