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An instructional design for new cognitive structure construction in native language on second language learning

Erden, Münire | Virlan, Ayşe Yılmaz

Preprint | 2021 | Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System

This study aims to design a second language instruction through the construction of new cognitive structures in the mother tongue and to determine its effect on the learner's cognitive load and achievement in learning complex structures. The study was undertaken in a public university in Istanbul with 79 prep school students and designed as a quasi-experimental study. A subjective cognitive load scale developed by Paas (1992) and an achievement test were utilized as the data collection tools. A covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was employed to determine student achievement between the experiment and control groups, the results of which p . . .roduced a significant difference in favor of the experiment group. The results of the one-way ANOVA showed that there is a statistically significant decrease with regards to the cognitive load of the students in the experiment group. The efficiency of instruction was also measured utilizing the efficiency formula developed by Paas and van Merrienboer (1994). The results corroborated the hypothesis that when designed in a way to construct new structures in the native language, thereby reducing the cognitive load, this instruction yields an increase in the achievement of the students for the learning of complex structures in the second language. The results call for attention that the instructional design utilized as the treatment of this study is efficient on the academic achievement of the students in their learning Daha fazlası Daha az

Personalized Evaluation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange in COVID-19 Patients with Regard to Energy Homeostasis

Yılmaz, Bayram | Temur, Sibel | Ercan, Sina | Akduman, Seha | Gücü, Ecem | Erdoğan, Cihan Süleyman | Yenikale, Ayberk | Özilgen, Mustafa

Preprint | 2021 | Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System

The COVID-19 does not proceed the same way in every patient. It may interfere with both oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange in the alveoli; therefore, prevent ATP generation; subsequently, restrict energy supply for the life processes of the patient. Data sets representing the course of the COVID-19 in four patients, where the disease followed dissimilar paths were reassessed after the end of the treatment, by focusing on the respiratory and metabolic energy related parameters (FiO2, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2) and the other parameters such as HCO3, lactate, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood urea nitrogen levels. . . . The valuable treatment data pertinent to each individual showed that each of them needed a personal treatment method. Group based statistical analyses may cause loss of the valuable medical information, if some of the dissimilar treatment details is considered as outliers. NIH has very recently reported that, there is no sufficient data yet to recommend either for or against the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the treatment of the COVID-19 patients. However, the results of this study suggest that ECMO may be useful for removal of the CO2 from some of the COVID-19 patients; therefore, will be helpful if used in their treatment Daha fazlası Daha az

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