The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis by identifying the formal similarities and functional differences between “Tronie” painting and portrait painting that emerged in Dutch Golden Age painting of the XVII century. The aspects of Tronie painting that deviate from the standard understanding of portraiture are not easy to determine, as it has broad significance in its own genre. It has been misinterpreted by scholars due to the stylistic similarities it exhibits in research, and the form-content structure has been analyzed and clarified with recent studies. Our study has shown that Tronie painting, although . . .formally similar to portraiture and other genre paintings, is a distinct genre in which artists clearly show their technical mastery; it is grouped within itself and reflected in other genre paintings of the period. The findings obtained through the analyzes we have made have confirmed the hypothesis that Tronie painting is an independent genre, showing its adherence to the painting tradition. It occupies an important place in the process of development of the history of painting, as it enriches portrait painting through the experimental (empirical) basis it provides to painters
Emotions have always captured attention of philosophy, psychology and recently neuroscience. Through the history, emotions were considered as separate entity from thinking and cognition. It was mostly related with irrationality. Descartes claimed emotions were part of soul, based on his dualism theory. However, the period started with James-Lange changed this perspective. Together with cognitivist views, it has been understood that emotions have significant influence on cognitive functions. This focus towards relation between emotions and cognition led researchers to pay attention interaction concept. Neuroscience studies took this . . .concept and strengthened with integration theory. It has been shown in many studies that emotions have significant effect on cognitive functions. In this study I have given studies to show how this integration with perception, decision making, memory, attention and working memory studies. Visual working memory and attention were mostly used to show this influence. However, findings of emotion influences on cognitive functions showed inconsistency. We wanted to see how one specific emotion, anger, affect visual working memory with regulated version of Recency-Probe Paradigm. We used memory sets with violent and neutral items and gave a recognition task to participants. Anger is relatively less studied emotion compared to others due to its difficult to measure and induce. We expected that anger-induced participants’ reaction times and accuracy rates should differentiate with participants without induction. Even though there were slightly difference, we found no significant difference between reaction times of control and experimental group. In terms of accuracy also did not show significant difference. However, there was significant difference between reaction times to violent and neutral items inside the groups. We also found that results show inconsistency for emotion effect to cognitive functions
How are reasoning processes shaped by the heuristic system and analytic system? In the present study, we were focused on how heuristics and analytical thinking affect reasoning. According to dual-process theories, reasoning consists of two distinct modes of processing: System 1 and System 2. System 1 generates responses that are automatic, fast, and intuitive. This system does not need working memory resources. The other system is reflective. Characteristics of this system are deliberative, slow, and conscious. System 2 depends on working memory capacity. Therefore, system 2 needs working memory resources. In the present study, the . . .experimental design was as follows: All participants performed randomly distributed modified version of the bat and ball problems and the syllogistic reasoning problems while they kept memory load in mind and had a time limit in the initial response stage. Then the questions were asked again without memory load and deadline. Both tasks consist of conflict (experiment questions) and no-conflict (control questions) questions. Whereas participants chose among four options in a modified version of the bat and ball problems, they chose between yes and no, considering two premises and a conclusion in the syllogistic reasoning problems. A two-response paradigm was applied. The problems were asked twice. In the first presentation of the problems, we occupied the participant’s working memory with a dual task procedure and time pressure. We replicated the common implication of system 1 with fast response and system 2 with slow thinking
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6698 sayılı Kişisel Verilerin Korunması Kanunu kapsamında yükümlülüklerimiz ve çerez politikamız hakkında bilgi sahibi olmak için alttaki bağlantıyı kullanabilirsiniz.