Examining Heuristic-System 1 and Analytic-System 2 processing during reasoning on the syllogisms and the modified version of the bat and ball problems: response time, response confidence, and dual-task assessments

How are reasoning processes shaped by the heuristic system and analytic system? In the present study, we were focused on how heuristics and analytical thinking affect reasoning. According to dual-process theories, reasoning consists of two distinct modes of processing: System 1 and System 2. System 1 generates responses that are automatic, fast, and intuitive. This system does not need working memory resources. The other system is reflective. Characteristics of this system are deliberative, slow, and conscious. System 2 depends on working memory capacity. Therefore, system 2 needs working memory resources. In the present study, the experimental design was as follows: All participants performed randomly distributed modified version of the bat and ball problems and the syllogistic reasoning problems while they kept memory load in mind and had a time limit in the initial response stage. Then the questions were asked again without memory load and deadline. Both tasks consist of conflict (experiment questions) and no-conflict (control questions) questions. Whereas participants chose among four options in a modified version of the bat and ball problems, they chose between yes and no, considering two premises and a conclusion in the syllogistic reasoning problems. A two-response paradigm was applied. The problems were asked twice. In the first presentation of the problems, we occupied the participant’s working memory with a dual task procedure and time pressure. We replicated the common implication of system 1 with fast response and system 2 with slow thinking.

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Eser Adı
(dc.title)
Examining Heuristic-System 1 and Analytic-System 2 processing during reasoning on the syllogisms and the modified version of the bat and ball problems: response time, response confidence, and dual-task assessments
Yazar [Asıl]
(dc.creator.author)
Gültekin, Burak Berk
Yazar Departmanı
(dc.creator.department)
Yeditepe University Graduate School of Natural And Applied Sciences
Yazar Departmanı
(dc.creator.department)
Yeditepe University Graduate School of Natural And Applied Sciences Master’s Program in Cognitive Science
Yayın Tarihi
(dc.date.issued)
2022
Yayın Turu [Akademik]
(dc.type)
preprint
Yayın Türü [Ortam]
(dc.format)
application/pdf
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Analytic system
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Conflict detection
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Dual process of thinking
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Heuristics and biases
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Reasoning
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Two response paradigm
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Working memory
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Analitik Sistem
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Çatışma tespiti
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
ikili düşünme süreci
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Sezgisel yöntemler ve önyargılar
Konu Başlıkları [Genel]
(dc.subject)
Muhakeme
Yayıncı
(dc.publisher)
Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System
Dil
(dc.language.iso)
eng
Özet Bilgisi
(dc.description.abstract)
How are reasoning processes shaped by the heuristic system and analytic system? In the present study, we were focused on how heuristics and analytical thinking affect reasoning. According to dual-process theories, reasoning consists of two distinct modes of processing: System 1 and System 2. System 1 generates responses that are automatic, fast, and intuitive. This system does not need working memory resources. The other system is reflective. Characteristics of this system are deliberative, slow, and conscious. System 2 depends on working memory capacity. Therefore, system 2 needs working memory resources. In the present study, the experimental design was as follows: All participants performed randomly distributed modified version of the bat and ball problems and the syllogistic reasoning problems while they kept memory load in mind and had a time limit in the initial response stage. Then the questions were asked again without memory load and deadline. Both tasks consist of conflict (experiment questions) and no-conflict (control questions) questions. Whereas participants chose among four options in a modified version of the bat and ball problems, they chose between yes and no, considering two premises and a conclusion in the syllogistic reasoning problems. A two-response paradigm was applied. The problems were asked twice. In the first presentation of the problems, we occupied the participant’s working memory with a dual task procedure and time pressure. We replicated the common implication of system 1 with fast response and system 2 with slow thinking.
Kayıt Giriş Tarihi
(dc.date.accessioned)
2022-09-21
Açık Erişim Tarihi
(dc.date.available)
2022-09-21
Haklar
(dc.rights)
Yeditepe University Academic and Open Access Information System
Erişim Hakkı
(dc.rights.access)
Open Access
Telif Hakkı
(dc.rights.holder)
Unless otherwise stated, copyrights belong to Yeditepe University. Usage permissions are specified in the Open Access System, and "InC-NC/1.0" and "by-nc-nd/4.0" are as stated.
Telif Hakkı Url
(dc.rights.uri)
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0
Telif Hakkı Url
(dc.rights.uri)
https://rightsstatements.org/page/InC-NC/1.0/?language=en
Açıklama [Genel]
(dc.description)
Final published version
Açıklama [Not]
(dc.description.note)
Note: This preprint reports new research that has not been certified by peer review and should not be used as established information without consulting multiple experts in the field.
Tanım Koleksiyon Bilgisi
(dc.description.collectioninformation)
This item is part of the preprint collection made available through Yeditepe University library. For your questions, our contact address is openaccess@yeditepe.edu.tr
Yazar [KatkıdaBulunan]
(dc.contributor.author)
Saban, Sara
Yazar [KatkıdaBulunan] Kurum
(dc.contributor.institution)
Yeditepe University Faculty of Arts Sciences
Yazar [KatkıdaBulunan] Kurum
(dc.contributor.institution)
Yeditepe University Faculty of Arts Sciences Psychology Department
Yazar Katkı Sağlayan OrcID
(dc.contributor.authorOrcid)
0000-0001-5272-6231
Tek Biçim Adres
(dc.identifier.uri)
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11831/7970
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